Friday, June 25, 2010

Bible geography

I.  Intro and Definition Geography

A.         Geo - Greek meaning "earth"

B.         -graphy (Gk. - graphein) - means "to write" "a process or method of writing"; describing, systemizing

C.         Geography - (American Heritage Dictionary) - the study of the earth and its features and of the distribution on the earth of life and the affects of human activity.

D.         Bible Geography - a systematic process of describing the earth (lands and features) as it pertains to the activity of the people as written about in the bible.

E.             No basic, working understanding of the geography of the bible (land features, locations)

1.          Severely hampered and vastly limited in your knowledge of the bible

2.         Cannot understand the significance of many of the events written about in the bible

F.         Opinion - a major percentage of Christians have an extremely limited (if virtually no) understanding of bible geography and culture.

1.          Reading and understanding is thru American culture and knowledge

2.         Most perception is of dry, flat desert land

II.        Major Focus

A.         Primarily stay in the O.T.; if get into N.T., will probably not get beyond the gospels.

B.         In O.T. spend most of our time in Gen thru 2 Chron.

C.         Paying particular attention to land features and locations and chronology

III.      The Books

A.         Oxford Bible Atlas

1. The Gazetteer and how to use it.

B.         Holman's Book of Biblical Maps, Charts and Reconstructions


I.          Creation Gen 1:1-14

A.         In the beginning . . . 1:1-2

1.          1st day - Light
2.         2nd day - dome to divide the waters; sky
3.         3rd day - water gathered into seas; dry ground appears; vegetation
4.         4th day - sun, moon, stars, seasons
5.         5th day - fish, birds
6.         6th day - animals, reptiles, MAN
7.         7th day - Rest

B.         The Garden of Eden 2:8

1.          Real or fictional?  Real!
2.         Eden dissected by 4 rivers*** 
a.          Pishon - winds thru land of Havilah
b.             Gihon - winds thru land of Cush (Ethiopia) Mesopotamia 
c.             Tigris - runs along east side Asshur
  |                     d.         Euphrates

C.         Possible locations of Eden***
1.          Iraq (between Ur/Babylon; Atlas p.53)(P.107 of Holman for a modern day map picture); most popular due to proximity of River T and River E
2.         Abu Simbal in Ethiopia - p.52 least probable
3.         Central to S. Central Armenia p.53 Buck’s theory because ark landed on Mr. Ararat which is in Armenia (Turkey).  From here man has easy access to the world.

D.         What happened to Eden?

1.          Existed after banishment of Adam and Eve.
2.         Destroyed by the flood.  Others who knew location also destroyed in the flood.

II.        The Flood Gen 6:1-14

A.         Flood legends exist in almost every people group in world to include Middle East, India, China, Australia,
Europe, Americas, and Islands of the Pacific

B.         Adam to Noah - 1,056 yrs.

C.         Violence increases greatly - wickedness & evil  Ge 6:5

D.         God is grieved and decided to destroy mankind; except Noah.

E.         God sends flood; Noah 600 yrs old; 1,656 yrs after Adam.  (Occurred somewhere between 12,000/6,000 B.C.; no records of civilization before 12,000 B.C.)

1.          Opens the fountains of the deep (water came up from the ground).
2.         Opens the windows of Heaven (the 1st rain - up until then - a mist -springs watered ground).
3.         15 cubits (20 ft) over the highest mt.***
a.          Tremendous weight
b.         Tremendous impact on land and climate

F.         Ark landed on Mr. Ararat Ge 8:4***

1.          17,000 feet high; modern-day Turkey; Holman p.107

                        2.         God's choice spot for disbursement of peoples to                                different land masses.

3.         But it had to take a lengthy  period of time for Noah and sons to repopulate.

G.         Historical Settlement Theories

1.          Isolationists - several civilizations developed simultaneously w/o relation to any other; China, Sumer, India
2.         Centrists - society emerged on and from 1 place and reproduced itself in other places (this theory possibly supported by tower of Babel).

III.      Babel and the Rise of Ancient Civilization   Gen 11

A.         Noah and his sons

1.          Noah lived 350 yrs after the flood.
2.         Note:  There are 3 genetic "pools" in the world; Caucasian, Negroid, Asian
3.         The 3 sons:

a.          Shem - (father of Semites) descendants settled in Asia; Jesus was a descendant of Shem.
b.         Ham - descendants settled in Ethiopia and Northern Africa - Heathenism
c.          Japheth - descendants settled in Europe; Caucasian; Greeks and Indian’s

B.         Babel

1.          1st rulers (of mankind) were descendants of Ham.
2.         1st city that is mentioned in the Bible.
3.         Cosmopolitan city - probably 20 million (from Xandervaon Bible Encyclopedia)
4.         5 times the size of present day London.
5.         1st ruler was Nimrod - father of heathenism
                                    (Uncivilized, irreligious)
6.         Universal despotism) ruler w/absolute power and Authority who exercises it abusively.
7.         Universal idolatry.
8.         Other. .ites coming from Ham
a.          Cushite (Ethiopians)
b.         Canaanites
c.          Lybians

C.         Notes

1.          Modern civilization can be traced to approx 3500 B.C.
a.          Before 3500 - self-sustaining farmer groups; history before this is speculation.
b.         After 3500 - begin to note commerce between cities; history is record fact.
2.         Two  civilizations developed about the same time 1500 miles apart:
a.          Sumerians
b.         Egyptians

IV.        Ancient Civilizations Before Abraham

A.         Mesopotamia - "land between 2 rivers"***; another biblical name for Mesopotamia is "The land of Shinar"

1.          600 x 300 miles; present day Iraq
2.         Bordered by Tigris (biblical Hiddekel) and Euphrates Rivers which originate in Armenia; 2 rivers remain fairly wide apart before converging into a delta near the Persian Gulf.
3.         Ur found in 1922 in archeological dig by Sir Leonard Wooley of Britain.

B.         Akkad (also Sumer) from Persian Gulf northward for 200 miles - about 100 miles wide; p. 55 of Atlas

1.          First appears in history about 3000 b.C.
2.         Founded by Nimrod whom Genesis 10:8 calls "a mighty one in the earth"

C.         Sumer - pagan country from which Abraham and his family originates; descendants of Japheth, son of Noah

1.          Principal cities:  Ur (ancient city of Abraham), Lagash, Eridu, Umma, and Urruk***

a.          They are independent city-states
b.         Each city girded by moat and sun dried brick
c.          Urruk stretched over 6 miles w/over 900 towers
d.         City Gilgamesh

1.          Discovery of heroic poem called The Epic of Gilgamesh - epic poem of Gilgamesh; legendary king of Babylonia, written on clay tablets, found in the ruins of Nineveh
2.         An old Babylonian tale remarkably close to the story of God's judgement of sinful man in story of The Flood
3.         Excavations at Ur and Kish reveal traces of extensive inundation (which supports factually The Flood

2.         Each city had magnificent temple or ziggurat; Holman p. 145

a.          Explain ziggurat; temple tower, huge structure w/other temple buildings; usually 1/4 of the size of the entire city; 3 levels to the building made w/brick; garden terraces at each level; many still exist today.
b.         Ur - moon goddess Nanna; polytheistic worship (many gods); each city had its own particular gods.

1.          Ur was brought food daily by priests and priestesses who practiced magic.
2.         Nanna didn't care about everyday life of the citizen; he dealt w/other gods and earthly kings.
3.         Each family had household gods who acted as go between to the gods of greater power.

3.         An inventive people***

a.          Developed cuneiform; many have invented wheel; irrigated lands
b.         a Jephada people from central Asia
c.          Developed the first law codes; first walled cities; the arch.
d.         First to alloy tin an copper to make bronze - the bronze age

1.          Paleolithic (Old Stone Age) before 10,000 b.c.  Gen 1-11
2.         Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age) 10,000 to 8,000 b.c.
3.         Neolithic (New Stone Age) 8,000 to 4,500 b.c.
4.         Chalocolithic (Bronze/Stone Age) 4,500 to 3,150 b.c.
5.         Bronze (or Canaanite) 3,150 to 1,200 b.c.; also have middle-late bronze ages; Abraham probably in the middle bronze 2,200 - 1950 b.c.

e.          developed math system based on 10's and 6's; first to use the wheel and the yoke.
f.          Akkadians succumbed to the 3rd dynasty of Ur about 2,000 b.c.  This ushered in the rule of the patriarchs.

4.         Traded primarily w/India and Egypt

5.         Kings and subjects

a.          ziggurats was also center of Sumerian Gov't; the king lived in the temple, was actually viewed as a lower level god, rec'd taxes from the people and made laws for the people to live by.
b.         Sumer was made of city's/states; independent cities that often warred against each other.
c.          Abraham liven in the most powerful Sumerian City - Ur; at this time the Sumerian culture was on decline

D.         Egypt (developed at the same time as the Sumerians, cerca 3000 b.c.)

1.          Nile River - p.78 Bible Atlas; longest in world

a.          4000 miles long; originates in Ruwenzore Mts in Central Africa; source is Lake Victoria (whose sources, in turn, are the Blue Nile in the highlands of Ethiopia and the White Nile) ***
b.         Nile Valley - 1 to 24 miles wide; 600 miles long ***
c.          Egypt only existed along the green and in the Nile Valley
d.         Uninhabitable desert on either side of valley was a natural barrier to any invasions; no need for walled cities.
e.          Nile provided transportation, food, rich crop land, communication

2.         The Gift of the River - No River = No Egypt

a.          Farming - rich soil (caused by annual flooding which was caused by heavy rains and melting snows in African Mts.)

1.          planting was after the floods
2.         harvest in early fall and late winter
3.         used water from Nile (irrigation) to water desert
4.         produces wheat, barley, flax, cotton, fruits and veggies
5.         large harvests = storehouse for the ancient world (Ge 46 - famine in Canaan)

b.         Trading

1.          Nile is Egypt's main highway, constructed boats and barges; upstream is south, downstream is north and into the Mediterranean.

2.         traded crafts and goods - stopped at Elephantine by the first cataract; from s. of Egypt came goods of Africa such as ivory, ebony and animal hides, gold; Phoenicians traded a lot along the Nile.

c.          Unity from the River

1.          river influenced political history;
a.          prior to 3000 b.c. there was lower Egypt (the northern delta area) and Upper Egypt - the land south of the delta.
b.         Lower and upper Egypt united by Menes (MEEneece) cerca 3000 b.c.
c.          he established a gov't to rules along all of Nile; took title of Pharaoh

3.         Rulers of Egypt

a.          Pharaoh's considered to be gods, communicated w/other gods.
b.         Controlled all the land; received taxes which were used to build tombs, temples, storehouses, irrigation works
c.          Used slave labor (including the Israelites)
d.         the Vizier - 2nd highest gov't official; more visible than Pharaoh; chief judge (Joseph was the Vizier during his time)
e.          The Kingdom Ages

1.          Old Kingdom - pharaohs had complete power; build pyramids for tombs; capital - Memphis
2.         Middle Kingdom - moved upstream; capital = Thebes, pharaohs had slightly less power (Joseph here)
3.         New Kingdom - a huge empire extending N to Euphrates R under Pharaoh Thutmose III; Pharaoh Amenhotep was next; he was probably the Pharaoh of the Exodus cerca 1446 b.c.

4.         Religion

a.          Nile = source of life; Egyptians worshiped the Nile as a God
b.         Polytheistic

1.          Ra - chief god - the sun god
2.         Amen (of the middle kingdom) made equal to Ra - Amen-Ra of Thebes
3.         Osiris - god of the underworld

"model                                      |           a.          wife=Isis; protected children
 family"                                    |           b.         son=Horus, the falcon god

c.          Pharaoh = high priest

1.          daily ritual - rising, washing, dressing - walk to temple to awaken sleeping god, washed and clothed and fed the idol, put makeup on it, resealed the temple
2.         strong belief in life after death - which would be a lot like this one - built pyramids as tombs for the wealthy
3.         death - preserve body (most elaborate)

a.          remove brain/abdominal organs; put in clay jars in tomb
b.         clean skull and abdominal cavities w/spices
c.          soak body 70 days in Natron, a salt solution (probably was how Joseph was embalmed
d.         wrapped in linen bandages
e.          placed in several coffins; one inside the other
f.          tomb stocked w/goods and foods

5.         Learning along the River

a.          Afforded by sons/daughters of wealthy Egyptians
b.         Learned hieroglyphics - wrote w/pen and ink on papyrus

1.          Translation of hieroglyphics lost for thousands of years
2.         Rosette stone discovered in 1799; had a message carved on hieroglyphic, demotic (a labor Egyptian script) and Greek writing

c.          Science

1.          Observed life on, in, above earth and in sky
2.         Stars - cycles of nature
3.         Developed a calendar of 365 days into 12 months of 30 days w/5 left over at end
4.         Math - useful in construction
5.         Medicine
6.         "A very learned people" - Moses brought up learning these things.

6.         Family life Along the river

a.          Married young - had several children
b.         Men and women equal - both inherited land and wealth
c.          Farmed together as families
d.         One story houses - few rooms; livestock lived in front room; roofs = visit and sleep
e.          Prided themselves on cleanliness, both house and body - bathed often, fresh clothes; cosmetics and wigs - perfumed cones of oil melt and bathe head and shoulders

7.         Egypt not as advanced as Mesopotamia in math and science; low level of literature; life was cheerful and secure (based on politically unified geographic area); surpassed Mesopotamia in the arts; Palestine was constantly embroiled in warfare - Egypt wasn't.

E.         Canaan (Palestine) 3000 to 2000 b.c.

1.          Palestine is Greek for "Philistia", thus the name for part of the country came to be applied to the entire country.
2.         10,000 square miles - about the size of Vermont
3.         Canaan means "red purple"; dye from the Murex shellfish; wool dyed this way seemed to be an important export from Canaan.
4.         Trade routes between Mesopotamia and Egypt naturally flowed thru Canaan

a.          Kings Highway - (Y-6) of Oxford p.49; starts above Palestine and runs along the eastern side of the Jordan (fjords Jordan in plains of Jericho) to the Sinai Peninsula***

                        1.          Soil research and aerial photography have been combined to confirm the King's Highway.
Keller p.111|                                          2.         The highway can clearly be seen from the air as a dark line stretching away to the north - crossing the Zared.
                        3.         soil research makes it plain that at the time of the exodus, it was flanked by cultivated land; Canaan is the western side of the Fertile Crescent.

b.         The Way of the Sea - followed the coastal plain***

5.         These are well-used, well traveled "highways"; fairly well protected but not immune from robbers.
6.         Canaanite kings exacted usage tolls for travelers; made some $ but not made wealthy
7.         Country very barbaric; savage; constant warfare; over-run every 50 yrs or so.
8.             Canaan strongholds
a.          Megiddo (east coast, w of Jezreel p.49) a fortified city
b.         Shechem (to the S of Megiddo)

10.           Owed its wealth to the trade routes
11.           The Jordan R divided the land geographically, steep gorges; table land on E side
12.           City-states - internal warfare
13.           Battled against foreign invaders from surrounding powers
14.           Lots of wandering people
15.           Negeb (to the S.) was sparsely populated

V.         Palestine: the Natural Regions***  (Atlas p.49)

A.         The Coastal Plain

1.          Coastal area all along Med Sea Coast
2.         (Starting N and working S) The Plains of

a.          Phoenicia - only a few miles wide, lots of suitable harbors
b.         Acco
c.          Dor - Mt. Carmel to Caesarae (includes coastal city of Dor)
d.         Sharon - luxuriant, once thickly covered w/oak forest; Caesarea to Joppa
e.          Philistia - gentle rolling hills, densely populated in Bible days, good for growing fields of barley and wheat; merges into steppe and dessert, Joppa south to the Negeb

B.         The Central Highlands (The Western Hills)

1.          N to S  Area between coastal plains and Jordan R, then ends in desert in S Palestine
2.         This is a Mt range
3.         Between upper and lower Galilee the Mts run from east to west w/occasional fertile valleys.
4.         Galilee is the most beautiful area of Palestine.
5.         this area provides a natural crossover point from The Kings Highway and The Way of the Sea; p.49 of Oxford
6.         The plains around Megiddo and the valley of Jezreel from an important break providing a low and easy route
7.         Plains of Megiddo and Acco is drained by Kishon R (a torrent in the rainy season).  This is one of the most fertile plains of Palestine.
8.         Hill Country of Ephraim

a.          Limestone upland w/fertile valleys and small plains
b.         Hill slopes grow olive, fig and other fruit trees
c.          City of Shechem in middle; between Mt. Ebal and Mt. Gerizim (mts. of blessing and cursing)

9.         Hill Country of Judah - sparse vegetation and stony out crops
10.        The Shephelah - between Hill country of Judah and plain of Philistia to the west - a foothill region; grains and vines w/olive and sycamore trees
11.        The Jeshimon (also called Wilderness of Ziph) - from hill country of Judah east to the Dead Sea

C.         The Rift Valley (also known as Jordan River Valley)

1.          depressed between two great geographical faults
2.         runs entire length of Palestine from Lebannons in extreme N,; ends in central Africa in S.; contains Mt. Herman on the N; source of the Jordan R.
NOTE:  Jordan means "that which goes down"
3.         Mt. Herman is 9,232 feet above sea level; sea of Galilee is 695 feet below sea level; Dead Sea is 1,285 feet below see level***
4.         It's almost impossible to cross the Jordan because of extreme low elevations on W. and extreme high elevations on E. side

D.         The Eastern Hills (Transjordan - means "beyond the Jordan) current day country of Jordan

1.          Divided by 4 rivers: Yarmuk, Jabbok, Arnon, Zered
2.         Receives good rain; thus it's fertile

E.         The Desert

NOTE:  No single geographical feature united Canaan, as did the Nile R in Egypt or the Tigris-Euphrates R in Mesopotamia

VI.        The Patriarchs of Israel  Genesis 11:31-50:26

A.         Abraham  2150 b.c.

1.          world was well-advanced for this time period
2.         lived in Ur - a large Sumerian city w/a central marketplace; full of traders, trading, and goods

a.          leading city of Sumer
b.         founded 1500 yrs earlier, on banks of Euphrates
c.          an ancient city during Abraham's time
d.         irrigated fields
e.          surrounded by massive walls (city-state mentality); archaeologist digging at Ur discovered a remarkable band of clay 8' thick which pointed to some great flood disorder in the area about 4000 b.c.  Both above and below the clay deposit were found traces of human settlement.
f.          trade vessels traveled up Euphrates from Persian Gulf
g.          ziggurat of Ur - base = 200 x 150 t; 1st level 70 feet high, multi-levels; at top is shrine to patrol god (Nanna (Nannar) the moon goddess

3.         God leads Ab's father Terah from Ur to Haran; 600 miles nw of Ur***

a.          traveled on foot to Padam-Aram - rolling grass covered hills; Ab/Sarai go as well.
b.         excellent for grazing; for horse herds, introduced into the area by Assyrian who had developed genetically superior horse - fierce warriors
c.          Terah leaves about the time of the collapse of Ur under the assault of Nomadic Amorites from the desert.
d.         Stops at Haran - an important trading center at the intersection of ancient caravan routes from Egypt, Canaan, Asia Minor and Mesopotamia
e.          Haran belonged to the Kingdom of Mari (Mari located on Euphrates R. between Haran and Babylon - p. 55 of Oxford, H-4; an excavated library at Mari unearthed 25,000 clay tablets; they were cuneiform texts which contained info concerning the patriarchal period

4.         (Ge 12) Terah dies At Haran - Ab receives his call; leaves for Canaan w/Sarai and Lot

a.          Canaan is 400 miles from Haran (close to Shechem)
b.         barbarous people w/little or no morals

5.         Ab was a tent dweller - a nomad; stayed in a location as long as the pasture land held out as well as the water source
6.         Exploits: faith, war, intercession
7.         Probably enters the land near the Wadi Farah (water source); this is 800 feet below sea level and rests here***

a.          Waddi is a small valley w/small springs at base of valley; p. 49 of Oxford
b.         not a lot of pasture land; so can't stay here long w/herds

8.         Moves on to the plains of Moreh at Shechem - 2300 feet above seal level

a.          from Wadi Farah to Shechem is an increase of 3100 feet in a distance of 18 to 20 miles
b.         this is a very difficult journey

9.         (Ge 12:6) Ab builds his first alter to the L at Shechem

a.          God shows up!
b.         promises to give the land to Ab's offspring
c.          Some history of Shechem:

1.          Joseph’s bro’s pastured flocks here
2.         Joseph was buried here
3.         Josh gathered the 12 tribes here
4.         Rehaboam crowned here
5.         United monarchy was divided
6.         Jeraboam established his royal resid.
7.         Excavations 1st made 1906/7, 1913, 1934,
-           gates, walls, temples, pottery,
coins discovered
-           found large wall from middle bronze
age - Ab’s age
-           in wall was found gateway where
Hamor and his son Shechem consulted
W/Jacob and his people (Ge 34:20)

10.        (Ge 12:8) Journeys south along the central highlands (along the natural watershed) to a place of land w/Bethel on the west and Ai on the east

a.          builds a 2nd alter
b.         no large cities in this area; few other towns
c.          hills were forested and brush covered

12:10                11.        Famine drives Ab to Egypt - goes by "the Way of the Shur" to the Nile delta; this way is well traveled, well marked - fewer chance for trouble
12.        Travels through the Negev back to Bethel - to same spot
13.        Separation of Ab and Lot
a.          Lot chooses the plains of the Jordan to the east (rich pasture land) - near Sodom (possible location of Sodom?) and other cities of the plain
b.         Ab moved to Hebron (highest elevation along Central Highlands; camps by the oaks of Mamre - a choice piece of land; Oxford p.57, X-5; west of Dead Sea***
c.          Ultimately - the burial place of Ab, Isaac, Jacob, Sarah

14.        4 kings (probably of Babylonia) attack 5 kings of cities of the plain and defeat them; carry off Lot and his family as captives

a.          Ab w/318 men learns of this and travels from Mamre (mile n. of Hebron) to Dan (120 miles); Dan also known as Laish; N. Of L. Huleh
b.         Routes their battle force and chases them to Hobah, n. of Damascus
c.          Rescues Lot - his family and possessions

15.        Returns to Hebron

a.          meets Melchizedek (Heb 5:6-7; no beginning, no end, prince of peace) near Jerusalem (Jebus) on way back
b.         Ab gives him 1/10th of everything

Gen 16                          16.        Ab has son Ishmael by Hagar - Sarai's maidservant - at Hebron Ab is 86 yrs old  16:16

a.          Sarai's waiting a family
b.         Ab wanting to help G accomplish His promise
c.          Ishmael - “God hears”
d.         Ishmael is 13/14 when Isaac is born;
Therefore, Ab is 99/100 when Isaac is born.

17.        Ab greets 3 visitors at Mamre

a.          Ab bargains for Sodom
b.         Lot flees to Zoar - then to mt caves
c.          Sodom and Gomorrah destroyed

18.        Isaac born somewhere between Gerar and Beersheba (Ishmael is 13/14)

a.          Gerar means _______; in Philistine country
b.         Beersheba means "place of covenant"; present day Beersheba still has several wells that date back to patriarchal times.
c.          S of Hebron - hills are w.ward and meet semi arid desert.
d.         Gerar = dominant city of the area (located on the Way of the Sea)

19.        Ishmael and Hagar driven out into the desert (the Negev) NOTE: Muslims of today claim Ishmael as their father.

*******                                    Insert parts of World History lesson on Muslims

I.          Intro on Islam

A.         World’s predominant Muslim nations are N. Africa, Middle East, Southern and Central Africa

B.         About 935 million Muslims around world compared
To 1,759 million Christians Holman p. 128

C.         “Islam means “surrender or “submission

D.         Credited founder is Muhammad

1.             Had revelatory vision from God in yr 610Delivered by angel Gabriel
2.             Msg = there is only one God - not many as The Arabs believed; he created all and would One day judge all of mankind
3.             Muhammad saw self as continuation and conclusion To Judaism/Christianity
4.             He was the last in a succession of prophets which included Adam, Abraham, Moses, Elijah, Jesus

E.         Never incorporated into Judaism/Christianity; became new religion

F.         Sayings were collected into what is now called “Koran”

II.           Basic Beliefs

A.                 One God - creator and sustainer of all who will one day judge all and send them to heaven or hell. 
B.                  Mankind is crown of creation yet weak and prone to disbelief in God. 
C.                  God sends prophets to compensate.
D.                  Do good and forbid evil; work to establish social and economic justice; evangelize

III.      The Anchors of Islamic Community (“The 5 Pillars”)

A.         (Basic Creed) Profession of faith is “No God but Allah and Muhammad is his prophet.”

B.         Prayer - 2 types

1.          Personal, devotional, spontaneous; not bound by Ritual or formula.
2.         Ritual (often congregational) w/specific words, Postures; offered 5 times daily - sunrise, midday, Mid-afternoon, sunset, before bed

C.         Pilgrimage

1.          Annual Muslim rite every believer expected to do once in his/her lifetime
2.         Go to Mecca and visit holy shrine of Kaaba in the Great Mosque
3.         Re-enacts Muhammad’s flight from Mecca to Median in 622
4.         Shrine is considered to be build by Abraham/Ishmael who is/are considered founder(s) of the faith

D.         Fasting - during month of Ramadon (month KORAN 1st  revealed to Muhammad)

E.         The Zakat - obligatory tax by Muslims to the state  or community (no longer obligatory)

IV.        The KORAN

A.         Koran means “recitations”
B.         Revealed to Muh so it could be recited to Arabs  in their tongue
c.          Revealed, eternal, infallible word of God; ultimate authority on all religions and social and legal issues
D.         Book is divided into 114 chapters

1.          Arranged from longest to shortest
2.         Not in chronological order
3.         Main emphasis is on the oneness of Allah
4.         Belief in resurrection from dead, angels, devils, heaven and hell.

Abraham continued . . .            

20.       Ab now lives at oasis of Beersheba (well of the oath or well of the seven)

a.          a connecting point for King's Highway and The Way of The Shur
b.         Ab exacts toll charges (rent)

21.        Ab takes Isaac to Mt Moriah to be sacrificed***  Ge 22:2
22.       Sarah dies at age 127 (Isaac born when Sarah was 90) Gen 23
23.       Ab purchases cave of Machpelah from Ephron the Hittite near Hebron and buries Sarah there***
24.       Relatives of Abraham

a.          Lot's children - Ammon and Moab (Ab was their great uncle)
b.         Hagar's child Ishmael
c.          Keturah's children (Ab's 2nd wife) Ge 25:1-6 (6 other sons)
d.         Esau's children (Edomites) are great grand-children of Abraham  Ge 36:1-43

B.         Isaac

1.          A nomad and shepherd
2.         Lived in nw Negev - venturing no more than 50 miles (Mt. Moriah - sacrifice)
3.         Abraham sends servant to Padan Aram the city of Nahor (nw Mesopotamia) and to Elezer who prays at well for camels to be watered.
4.         Rebekah brought to Isaac at Beer-lahoi-roi (location is unknown - somewhere in the Negev);
Rebekah is Ab’s great-niece; Isaac and Reb are cousins
5.         Famine forces him back to Gerar where he re-opens a well dug by Abraham; NOTE: wells were customarily maintained by rolling a stone over them to prevent them from choking from windblown sand.  Wells were a source of water that meant life or death.
5.         Dispute w/Abimelech, king of Gerar causes him to leave the area; resides at Beersheba

C.         Jacob  25:19-34  26:34-50:26

1.          obtains Esau’s birthright at Beersheba***

a.          Position as next patriarch
b.         Inheritance of double portion of land and goods
c.          Religious leadership of family

2.         flees to Padan-Aram (Haran) after stealing the blessing

a.          Probably left by himself
b.         Dangerous, opens himself to attacks, muggings

3.         rests at Luz; sees angels ascending-descending ladder; receives God's promises

a.          Sets up pillar, anoints it w/oil
b.         Renames this place Bethel - house of God***  Ge 28:19

4.         Following Jabbok valley - travels along King's Highway to Damascus and Hamath; crosses the Euphrates; enters grasslands of Padan-Aram
5.         Meets Laban (Rebekah’ S brother) and Rachael

a.          Works for Rachel; tricked by Laban into marrying Leah
b.         Marries Rachel 1 week later but works another 7 yrs

6.         Jacob leaves Laban as a rich man

a.          Has knowledge of animal husbandry (to produce "his" animals)

b.         Laban overtook Jacob after 7 days at hill country of Gilead - treaty
c.          Rachel has stolen household gods - gods denoted power, right of ruler ship, blessing, heir to the estate

7.         Has been absent 21 years
8.         Jacob meets the angels of God (Ge 32:1) at Mahanaim - "two camps"
9.         Sends messenger to Esau in land of Seir (Edom)
10.        Learns that Esau is coming w/400 men
11.        That night - wrestles w/angel at Penuel (Face of God) on banks of Jabbok R.; wrestles for safety of his family, for the blessing of protection; name changed to Israel “struggles w/God”***
12.        After encounter w/Esau (father of Edomites)

a.          Esau returns to Edom
b.         Jacob ends up at Succoth (shelters)- straight east of Penuel about 8 miles; then goes to Shechem by way of Wadi Farah***
c.          buys land from Hamor (father of Shechem) the Hivite
d.         pitches tent, builds alter; called it El Elohe Israel - “Mighty is the G of Israel”

13.        At Shechem Dinah (Jacob's daughter by Leah) is raped; Jacob's sons Simeon and Levi (Dinah's brothers, kill all men of Shechem for revenge)
14.        Jacob moves to Bethel
15.        G again tells Jacob his name is changed to Israel 35:10
16.        Gods' promise to Jacob to make him a nation; Jacob moves on from Bethel
17.        Rachel dies in childbirth near Ephrath (Bethlehem)
18.        Pitches his tent by Migdal Eder
19.        Returns to his father Isaac at Oaks of Mamre, near Kiriath Arba (Hebron)  Ge 35:27  Has been gone 21 years
20.       Jacob's sons

a.          By Leah - Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulon
b.         By Rachael  - Joseph, Benjamin
c.          By Bilhah (Rachael's maidservant) - Dan, Naphtali
d.         By Zilpah (Leah's maidservant) - Gad, Asher
21.        Isaac dies near Kiriath Arba (Hebron)

D.         Joseph Ge 37:50 --> circa 1890 b.c.

1.     At 17 you sent from Mamre by father Jacob to his bro's at Shechem where they were grazing the family's flocks (Joseph - 2nd youngest son)
2.     Goes to Shechem - no bro's; they had moved to Dothan
3.     Bro's seize him at Dothan (where Elisha had vision of heavenly horses and chariots and said “those who are with us are more than those against us”) and throw him in cistern

a.             Reuben tried to rescue him
b.             Judah convinces bro's to sell Joseph to Ishmaelite caravan for 20 shekels silver

4.     Bro's take Joseph's blood soaked robe to Jacob at Mamre 37:36 

5.     Joseph sold to Potiphar, Egyptian Pharaoh's captain of the guard

a.          In charge of Potiphar's household
b.         Accused by Potiphar’s wife
c.          Thrown in prison
d.         Put 2nd in charge of prison
e.          Interprets dreams of cupbearer and baker
f.          Interprets dreams of Pharaoh
g.          Made Vizier of Egypt at age 30

6.         Famine in Canaan

a.          Bro’s travel to Egypt 1st time
b.         Bro’s travel to Egypt 2nd time
c.          After 2nd trip bro's tell father Israel that Joseph still lives
d.         Israel sets out "with all that is his" and travel to Beersheba and offers sacrifices

7.         Jacob/Israel and family move to Goshen in Egypt

a.          Good land
b.         A land set aside by Pharaoh for foreigners to live in

8.         Ephraim (2nd born) and Manasseh (1st born) reckoned by Israel as his (they were Joseph's sons born to him in Egypt)

a.          Ephraim receives blessing due 1st born
b.         Israel blesses his other sons

9.         Jacob/Israel dies and is buried in cave of Machpelah
10.        Joseph dies at 110 - lived almost his entire life in Egypt but desires his bones to be buried in Canaan (ultimately buried at Shechem)***
11.        NOTE:  Shortly before 1700 b.c. Egypt invaded, conquered by group of Asian marauders whom Egyptians called "Hyksos" - from northern Mediterranean Sea area; a warrior, sea-going people***

a.          Shortly before Joseph's reign in Egypt, a new dark age overwhelmed Egypt for 150 years
b.         Hyksos means "rulers of foreign lands"
c.          Made Avais in eastern Nile delta their capital
d.         Hyksos introduced the horse into Egypt
e.          Makes sense that a foreign Pharaoh would also have a foreigner as Vizier
f.          The bible account corresponds to ancient Egyptian excavations and other sources

1.          Egyptians did regard dreams and interpretations as important
2.         7 yr famines are confirmed in hieroglyphic texts
3.         "Chief of butlers" and "chief of bakers" appears in inscriptions
4.         NOTE:  murder by poisoning attempts in the ancient east caused the position of cup bearer to be one of special trust

g.          Hyksos overthrown and expunged from Egypt circa 1550 b.c.
h.         Joseph most probably rules in this time period

VII.      Israel's Bondage and Exodus Ex 1:1 - 40:38 c.1890-1470 BC

A.         A new king who does not know Joseph comes to power in Egypt; probably Seti I - son of Pharaoh Ramses

B.         Israelites enslaved; build Pithom and Ramses - store cities for the new Pharaoh.

C.         Israelites multiply tremendously (G's blessing) during their oppression.

D.         Pharaoh sentences Israelite newborn males to death.

E.         Moses' birth

1.          Great-great grandson of Jacob and Leah
2.         Raised by Pharaoh's daughter; nursed by his own mother; sister Miriam watched him float in the Nile
3.         Raised as a prince of Egypt; knowing his Hebrew heritage
4.         Kills Egyptian; Pharaoh tries to kill him
5.         Flees to Midian; marries Zipporah - daughter of Reul (Jethro); Midian on e side Gulf of Aqaba

F.         Called by God at the burning bush at age 80 Ex 3:1 to 4:31.

G.         Returns to Egypt w/Aaron to free Israelites; Pharaoh was probably Ramses II, son of Seti I.

H.         The Plagues 5:1 - 12:30 In and of themselves, not strange to Egypt.  What is strange/miraculous is they occurred when Moses spoke them not at their “regular” time

1.          Blood; happens when Nile is at high flood stage; waters saturated w/red dust from source rivers; unlivable for fish; Nile - god of life - now brings death
2.         Frogs - not unusual in Nile R valley.  Frogs - gods of fruitfulness - now bring disease
3.         Gnats - 1st plague in which G distinguished between Egyptians and Israelites
4.         Flies - no flies in Goshen
5.         Dead livestock - Egyptian goddess Hathor was represented as a bull.  This plague strikes at heart of Egyptian religious life
6.         Boils- Egyptians only - may have been produced by same carrier-flies that spread disease among cattle
7.         Hail-took place at end of Jan or begin of Feb.  Barley and flax were destroyed; wheat and spelt had not yet grown up
8.         Locusts-probably in March - ate up what was not destroyed earlier
9.         Darkness-perhaps caused by “Khamsin”, huge dust storms lasting 3 days; defeat of sun god - Re
10.        Firstborn dead 12:29-30  The Passover-pharaoh was immortal no more

I.          Egypt spoiled; people favorably disposed to give Israelites anything they asked for; they plundered Egypt 12:31-36

J.         The Exodus circa 1470 BC

1.          Left Egypt carrying Joseph's bones and camped at Etham (unknown location)
2.         Camped at Pi Hahiroth, opposite Baal Zephon  pl.59 of Atlas R-2
3.         Crossed Red Sea (Sea of Reeds; Yam Suph) at (SPECULATIONS)***

a.          Lake Sirbonis - east of Goshen - sandbars along the Mediterranean
b.         Lake Timsah - N of Gulf of Suez
c.          Papyrus marshes east of Ramses
d.         Gulf of Suez - shelf 50 mi south of Northern tip - earthquakes divided waters and revealed a shelf 15-20 feet under the surface
e.          The place of crossing is really unknown
f.          Bible says that Pharaoh pursued Israelites in chariots
g.          This was probably a chariot corps - powerful striking force operating in sections of 25 machines
I.          Each chariot equipped w/driver and a fighting man who was armed w/bow, shield and spear
j.          Pharaoh's army (Ex 14:9) were well-trained and experienced

1.          Make into companies of 40 soldiers - 4 columns of 10; each holding a 6' lance in right hand and a leather covered shield in his left
2.         Marching beside them a company of Nubian archers carrying bow in left hand and a bundle of arrows in right hand

K.         Wilderness Wanderings Ex 15:1 to 40:38

1.          Sinai Peninsula 250 mi long 150 mi wide Atlas p.59
2.         Traditions says that Hebrews followed an Arabian trade route in the Wilderness of Shur 15:22
3.         Traveled for 3 days w/o water; grumbled
4.         At Marah Moses sweetens bitter water w/stick of wood; present day Ain Hawara; 50 mi s of Suez on E side of Gulf- a few miles inland.
5.         Grumble 'cause no food - manna and quail
6.         At Rephidim attacked Amalekites - nomadic people from deserts of Canaan
7.         Amalekites defeated by Joshua (war general) as Moses hands uplifted (a position of worship)
8.         Arrive at Mt. Sinai 3 months after Exodus

a.          Also known as Jebul Musa "mountain of Moses" 7,293 ft high***
b.         See Keller p.103

9.         Camp at Jebul Musa for 1 yr

a.          Moses received 10 commandments; written in the form of a “treaty” of the time - p.170 of OT History by Pfeiffer
b.         Moses receives rest of the Law
c.          Constructs the ark, the tabernacle
d.         Makes the priestly garments
e.          Consecrates the priests
f.          The golden calf - probably fashioned after Apis, the Egyptian bull-god at Memphis  (see Keller p.106)
g.          Arrangement of tribal camps

Num 10:11                     10.        Leave Jebul Musa and travel to Desert of Paran - western side of Sinai to Kadesh-Barnea - n western part of Sinai

a.          Sent out 12 spies
b.         Spies followed trade route past Hebron and beyond Damascus - 240 miles
c.          Spies return to Kadesh-Barnea after 40 days
d.         People fear and refuse to enter the land

1.          Sentences to 40 years of wandering
2.         a generation misses their visitation and are doomed to dryness and wandering

e.          God still leads w/cloud by day and fire by night even though they messed up
f.          Israelites try to enter land but are defeated by Amalekites and Canaanites Num 14:44

L.          Wanderings Continue

1.          Korah's rebellion (Moses' 1st cousin Ex 6:20;21);Korah challenged Moses’ right to rule; he hadn’t led them to a land of mild and honey; he had led them from a land of mild and honey; Korah was jealous that Aaron’s family only had been set apart for priesthood
2.         Budding of Aaron's staff
3.         Miriam dies
4.         Moses sins by striking the rock
5.         Aaron dies on Mt. Hor, near the border of Edom
6.         Now on Trans-Jordan side
7.         Defeat Arad of the Negev
8.         Israelites grumble - no bread, no water, miserable food

a.          G sends venomous snakes
b.         Moses makes bronze snake; all who bit look upon snake and are saved

9.         Camp along Arnon R (border between Amon and Moab)
10.        Travel to Pisgah (where top of Pisgah overlooks wasteland)  Pisgah = Mt. Nebo
11.        Defeats Sihon of Moab- king of Amorites - for refusing to let Israel use that portion of the King’s Highway that traveled thru Sihon; Israel has no ensured that they will have safe crossing of the Jordan R into Canaan   Num 21:21
12.        Balak of Moab invites prophet Balaam to curse             Israel; he blesses instead.  He did succeed in inviting Israel to participate in licentious worship at Baal-peor. This marks the beginning of that tendency toward idolatry among the Israelites that continued until the destruction of Jerusalem and the exile that followed.                       
13.        Ruebenites and Gadites claim Ammon - the trans-Jordan east of Jericho)
14.        Moses recounts the journey

a.          Sets in much of The Law (most of Deut)
b.         Sets in Joshua as successor
c.          Blesses the tribes

15.                                                                                                        Moses dies on Mt Nebo (Pisgah)*** Dt. 34:1-8        
16.        Joshua, of tribe of Ephraim, crosses a stopped up Jordan R.; Jordan has been stopped since - Dec 8, 1266 near the Jabbok; Oct 14,1914 Jordan blocked at Jericho bridge; closed by masses of marl crashing down into the river

VIII. Conquest of the Promised Land Josh 1:1 to 24:33

A.         Palestine under Egyptian control - but probably Egyptian control was weakest at about this time; Joshua used Ammon and Gilead as a launch pad into Canaan;  3500 to 4000 feet above sea level.
B.         Jordan crossed w. of Shittim - Jordan stopped flowing

1.          Piled up at Adam - 18 miles n of Jericho
2.         Twice in 20th century a partial collapse of cliffs of Adam during rainy season has blocked the Jordan R (once for almost hour and half).  Below the blockage the riverbed was dry and passable by walking.

C.         Camp at Gilgal - all males circumcised*** Josh 5

E.         Jericho taken 6:1-27 Jericho is in the Jordan R Valley

1.          An ancient city going back to 2500 b.c.
2.         Not long after civilization began
3.         Jericho 840 feet below sea level - an oasis city

F.         Expansion to the interior of Palestine Atlas p.57 X-5

1.          Josh has 3 ways to go from Jericho (840 ft below sea level)
2.         a southern ridge runs sw of Jericho towards Bethlehem; an increase in elevation to 2700 feet above sea level; a very difficult route; sparse vegetation.
3.         a middle ridge to Jerusalem also a steep ascent; no water; lots of thistle bushes
4.         Josh chooses a northern route to Ai; good vegetation and a passage that leads to a broad plateau above Jebus (Jerusalem)
5.         Defeat at Ai: Ai destroyed ***  8:1-29
6.         Josh now controls the central part of the central highlands; can no n or s
7.         From Ai travels n to Mt. Ebal just n of Shechem
8.         Mt's of blessing and cursing; Mt. Ebal (n side) Mt. Gerazim (south)

G.         Defeat of the Southern Coalition Josh 10:1-43

 X5 p.61                        1.          Treaty w/Gibeonites (Gibeon n and w of Jerusalem 8 miles): and their cities: Gibeon, Kephirah, Beeroth and Kiriath Jearim - all to w. of Gibeah

a.          Leaders made mistake - honored first their oath to man instead of their covenant w/G
b.         Gibeonites made into slaves for the Israelites

2.         (Amorite kings) Kings of Jerusalem, Hebron, Jar math, Lachish, and Eglon attacked Gibeon for entering into a treaty w/Israelites
3.         Josh comes from Gilgal (just n of Jericho in Jordan R valley) to Gibeon in an all-night march and surprises the Amorite kings
4.         Defeats Amorites; G kills more by hailstone than Israel does by sword
5.         Josh having such success - prays sun stand still and G does it for one day
6.         Land now effectively cut in two; Josh has control from Gilgal (his base camp) all the way w to Eglon in Philistine area near the sea

H.         Defeat of Northern Coalition Josh 11:1-43

1.          King of Hazor heard about Joshua’s conquest and calls kings of Madon, Shimron, Acshaph, the kings in the Mt's, in the Arabah, Naphoth Dor, the Canaanites in east and west; to Amorites, Hittites, Perizzites, Jebusites, Hivites to stop the advance.
2.         Came w/horses and chariots (chariot is the tank of the ancient world)
3.         to waters of Merom (NW of Sea of Galilee)(waters of Merom flow into Sea of Galilee)
4.         These kings believed Josh and Israel were hill fighters and not equipped to fight in the plains
5.         Josh and another surprise attack defeat this northern coalition
6.         Josh then turns back and captures Hazor; put king to the sword; burned the city down***

I.          Josh has not taken control of the entire land (but had not driven out all the peoples.

J.         Division of the land among the tribes Josh 13:1 to 21:45

1.          Lots cast at Gilgal for Judah, Ephraim and Manasseh
2.         Rest of the division takes place at Shiloh
3.         Joseph gets no land; his 2 sons Manasseh and Ephraim were reckoned as Jacob's
4.         Levites - no land; the L was their inheritance; rec'd 48 cities and pasture lands

K.         Eastern tribes return to Transjordan (Ruebenites, Gadites, 1/2 tribe of Manasseh   Josh 22 NOTE: these tribes vanish from the picture in about 200 to 250 yrs.

1.          Build an alter at Geliloth
2.         Rest of Israel outraged at other tribes building an alter; there can only be one alter (like the ark in the tent of Meeting) in which to make sacrifices to God; 9 and 1/2 Israel tribes thought that the 2 1/2 were making an alter to a foreign god.  22:19

L.          Josh assembles Israel at Shechem (the elders, leaders, judges and officials) 24:1

1.          Recounts their history from Abraham to the present
2.         "Choose for yourselves this day whom you will serve."
3.         The people respond by choosing God
4.         Josh makes a covenant for the people

IX.       The Days of the Judges circa 1470 to 1050 B.C. Judges 1:1 to 21:25 and Ruth 1 - 4

NOTE:  Joshua dismisses the Israelites each to his own land.  Josh dies at age 110 and is buried at Timnath Heres in hill country of Ephraim, n of Mr. Gaash.  NOTE: No 1 judge represents all of Israel; at the most 3-4 tribes.  No one judge has all the resources of Israel at his disposal, otherwise they would trust in one central leader - not God.  Most of the 12 tribes acted as independent nations.

A.         Moab

1.          Moab had attacked and subjugated Jericho (City of Palms) for 18 yrs
2.         God used Moab against Israel because of her disobedience (remember the curses)
3.         Israelites cried out and repented
4.         God brought them Ehud, a left-handed Benjamite

a.          Ehud's trickery - brought tribute (appealed to his flesh) to the King
b.         Delivered a "special msg" to the king - a 1 ' sword strapped to right thigh
c.          Slew king Eglon - buried sword in Ehud's fat***

5.         Rallied Israelites in hill country of Ephraim and ended Moabiteic domination
6.         Peace for 80 years

B.         (Judge) Shamgar - defeated Philistines and saved Israel 3:31

C.         Israel does evil; the Lord sells them to Jabin, King of Hezor.

D.         Jabin dominated Israel for 20 years.

E.         God raises up Deborah - the only female judge for Israel*** a prophetess - judge between Ramah and Bethel (Hill country of Ephraim)

1.          Summoned Barak from Haphtali and told him to gather 10,000 men at Mt. Tabor to challenge Sisera (Jabin's general) who had 900 chariots.
2.         Get the picture!  The judge of Israel summoning Barak (a flashing sword) from a family (tribe) of people trained in struggle (Naphtali = my struggle) to deal w/a well armed, well trained, battle experience general. Is Barak hero or swine? What about Heb 11:32?
3.         The 2 armies meet at Megiddo at base of Kishon River
4.         G sends torrential rain, R. Kishon floods the area creating mud flats
5.         The chariots are useless.  Sisera flees, hides behind a woman's skirts (Jael's) and is killed by her driving a tent stake "through his temple."

F.         Israel then is encouraged and defeats and overthrows Jabin a short time later.

G.         Israel screws up again and is conquered by the Midianites - and the Amalekites (marauders from eastern desert)

1.          A ruthless people
2.         Bible says, "swarmed" over the land and destroyed everything, seized anything useful.

H.         Gideon 6:1 to 8:35

1.          Hiding wheat from the Midianites in a winepress
2.         Midianites - heavy marauding for last 7 yrs in Manasseh, Asshur, Zebulon, and Naphtali
3.         God chooses Gideon - the youngest of his family, of the weakest of Manasseh (Gideon means "one who hews down trees")
4.         Gideon summons Israelites and 32,000 respond (really not very many where compared to the #'s who wondered in the Sinai!)
5.         Chooses 300 (significance of scooping water vs. lapping water = watchfulness)
6.         Gives them ram horn, clay jar and a torch
7.         Divided men into 3 groups and surrounded enemy camp in valley of Jezreel***
8.         Attacked at night (blew horns, broke jars) - tremendous echo off rocks and hill sides
9.         Enemy panics and flee toward the Jordan
10.        Men of Ephraim blocked the fjords (the easy escape routes) and pursued the enemy to Penuel and Succoth
11.        40 years of peace

I.          Abimilech and Jotham (9:1-57) are Gideon's sons (Gideon also known as Jerubbaal)

1.          Gideon - a resourceful man had wives and concubines; he fathered 70 sons!
2.         Son Abimelech jealous and kills his bro's on a stone in Ophrah
3.         The people try to crown Abimelech king at Shechem
4.         During ceremony bro' Jotham (who had escaped assassination) prophesies against him
5.         Later, Shechem turns against Abimelech
6.         Abimelech overthrows Shechem; raids other towns; killed at Thebes by woman and millstone

J.         Judges Tolah and Jair who rule 23 and 22 yrs respectively.

K.         Israel again does evil and is conquered by Philistines and Ammonites.

L.          Ammonites pressure Gilead for 18 years 11:1-27.

1.          God raises up Jephthah - the son of a harlot after his bro's kick him out of the family
2.         Jepthah's vow - victory = sacrifice whatever comes out of his house upon his return home
3.         Defeats Ammon - who wanted his land back - land between Arnon and Jabbok Rivers
4.         Keeps vow! Sacrifices daughter
5.         Ephraim confronts him; they're contentious and armed for battle; were upset they weren't invited to the "party" (battle); they wanted the loot and the plunder
6.         Ephraim routed; Jephthah blocked fjords of the Jordan at Adam (where Jordan was stopped up earlier)
7.         Killed Ephramites who couldn't say "shibboleth" - 42,000!

M.        Minor judges - Ibzan of Bethlehem (7 yrs) Elon (10 yrs) Abdon (8 yrs) [total 25 years].

N.         Israel does evil again; conquered by Philistines for 40 yrs.

O.         Samson Judges 13:1 to 16:31  "A party animal"

1.          Prodigious strength, a Nazarite, riotous living; never led an army, great exploits
2.         Slays a lion at Timnath in land of Philistines 14:5-9
3.         Pays the lost bet at Timnath in land of Philistines
4.         Burns crops and slays Philistines - this scares the men of Judah (because of the severe oppressive rule of the Philistines)

a.          Philistines migrated here from the island of Crete in the Med Sea***; originally attacked Egypt and were repulsed; allowed to settle in Palestine
b.         explain location of Philistia
c.          principle cities are: Gaza, Gath, Ashdod, Ekron, Ashkelon
d.         chief gods: Dagon - god of grain; Ashtoreth - fish tailed chief goddess; Beelzebub - L. of the flies (annual invasion of swarms of flies)
5.         Samson is seized and handed over to Philistines
6.         Samson breaks his bonds; slays 1000 w/jawbone of an ass; goes to Gaza and spent night w/prostitute; surrounded by men; got up in middle of night; tore of gates and took them to Hebron (going from the coast thru the Shephelah into central highlands - about 40 miles***)
7.         Story of Delilah and his capture (messing w/Philistines again!); seized at valley of Sorek and transported to Gaza on the Philistine coast
8.         Death at Gaza

P.          Israel enters into a state of religious apostasy  17:1 to 18:31

1.          Michah and his household god (made from mom's $)
2.         Danites move out of their place

a.          Took Laish, n of sea of Galilee
b.         a good land that "lacked nothing"
c.          Worshiped Michah's household gods

Q.         Israel's decline into moral corruption

1.          a Levite travels to Gibeah (which has been settled by the Benjamites)
2.         Benjamites want to have sex w/Levite
3.         Levite sends out his concubine
4.         she was ravished and killed
5.         Levite - appalled - cuts her into 12 parts and mails her to all Israel
6.         Israel was also appalled and warred on the Benjamites; 20:1-17; 400,000 vs 25,000; Israel swears not to give daughters to be Benjamite wives
7.         devastation of tribe of Benjamin at Gibeah; (Joshua's battle strategy against Ai used)
8.         600 survivors escaped by fleeing into the desert at Rimmon
9.         Israel mourns potential loss of one of the 12 tribes
10.        in order to save a tribe - 400 women taken from Jabesh-Gilead (21:1-15); 200 more from Shiloh 21:16

R.         Ruth the Moabitess Ruth 1:1 to 4:22

1.          From Bethlehem to Moab due to famine
2.         From Moab to Bethlehem - meets Boaz
3.         Ruth - the great-grandmother of David 4:21-22

S.         Eli judged Israel for 40 years

1.          Philistines enlarge and press Israel
2.         Armies meet at Ebenezer and Aphek 1 Sam 4:1-2
3.         Israelites loose 1st day
4.         They wonder "why" and call for the ark from Shiloh

a.          Violated regulations one moving the ark
b.         You don't go get the presence of the Lord and bring it to you - you go into the presence of the Lord

5.         Annihilated second day  - 40,000 losses
6.         Ark captured; Hophni and Phinehas (Eli's sons) killed***
7.         Eli - in Shiloh - hears of lost sons and lost ark - falls backward, breaks neck I Sam 4:18
8.         Philistines take the ark to Ashdod and place it in Dagon's temple
9.         Dagon toppled and broken; people develop tumors
10.        Ark goes to Gath - same thing
11.        Ark goes to Ekron - same thing
12.        Philistines send the ark back by ox cart by the valley of Sorek
13.        Ark found and taken to Kireath-Jearim - remained there 20 years

T.         Samuel 1 Sam 1:1 to 16:13 NOTE: The 1st of a new breed - a judge and a prophet.  There is a difference between Samuel and the preceding prophets

1.          Philistines capture Shiloh (where ark was) and again harshly rule
2.         Samuel summoned all Israel at Mizpah; people demand a king (to be like other countries since Samuel's sons were evil) (Mizpah = watchtower)
3.         Sam judges from Ramah along circuit route of Mizpah, Bethel, Gilgal; Ramah is where "mom" is; Ramah is also where elders were gathered and wanted a king
4.         Anoints Saul at Gibeah - the prophet speaks for God - God chooses the king

X.         Israel's First Three Kings

A.         Saul I Sam 9:1 to 11:43   1020 - 1000 B.C.

1.          A Benjamite***
2.         Anointed in the region of Ziph (location?)  I Sam 9:5 to 10:1)
3.         Chosen by lot at Mizpah - 5 miles n of Jerusalem; found in baggage***; 10:17; really chosen by God (I Sam 9:17)
4.         Saul returns to Gibeah - 2 to 3 miles n of Jerusalem (his home city and place of rule***)
5.         Some didn't want Saul as king
6.         Nahash the Ammonite besieged Jabesh in Gilead

a.          Israelites ask for treaty
b.         Nahash agrees - in exchange for right eye
c.          Israelites send msg to Saul in Gibeah
d.         Saul rec's msg, cuts oxen in pieces, sends to rest of Israel; only 4-5 tribes respond
e.          Saul musters them at Bezek; 330,000 men I Sam 11:8
f.          Defeats the Ammonites
g.          Saul thus finally wins authoritative approval of the people; his kingship is then reaffirmed at Gilgal 11:15

7.         Saul was 30 yrs old when became king and reigned 42 years  13:1
8.         Jonathan attacks Philistine outpost at pass at Micmash just n of Jerusalem***  (Keller p. 150 overhead)

a.          Philistines respond w/assembling 3,000 chariots, 6,000 charioteers and thousands of soldiers at Micmash (n of Gibeah which is just 8 miles north of Jerusalem)
b.         Jonathan and Saul between them have only 3,000 men

9.         Saul's army is afraid and begins to scatter from Gilgal
10.        Saul makes the sacrifices to keep army from leaving

a.          Violates G's law - only the priests allowed to make sacrifices
b.         Samuel arrives and rebukes Saul; prophesies that Saul's kingdom will not endure
c.          Army scatters; only 600 remain w/Saul 13:15

11.        Jonathan and his armor bearer attack Philistine outpost at Micmash

a.          Panic strikes rest of Philistine army and they begin to flee
b.         Saul, from Gibeah, sees what's happening and goes to battle
c.          Philistines are defeated
d.         This was probably Saul's greatest achievement - expulsion of Philistines form the hill country

12.        During Saul's reign he continually fights Israel's enemies on all sides:  Moab, Ammon, Edom, Zobah (by Damascus, Syria), and the Philistines
13.        Samuel tells Saul to attach the Amalekites and totally destroy everything, putting men, women and children, cattle, sheep, camels, donkeys to death

a.          Saul musters 210,000 men at Telaim and attacks Amelekites in the northern part of the Negev
b.         Captures Agog, king of Amelekites
c.          Kept the good animals
d.         Disobedient to the word of Samuel from God
e.          Takes Agog and the herds back to Gilgal
f.          Samuel accuses Saul of disobedience
g.          Samuel prophesies that Saul's kingdom has been torn from him and given to another
h.         Samuel chops Agog to pieces and returns to Ramah never to see Saul again

B.         David  I Sam 16:1 thru I Kings 2:11  1000 - 962 b.c.

NOTE:  A quiz? will be "David was born how many yrs into Saul's reign?"  It can be figured out from the biblical text.

1.          Selected from 8 sons of Jesse - David the youngest - anointed by Samuel at Bethlehem***
2.         "and from that day on the Spirit of the L came upon David."  1 Sam 16:13
3.         This is the last we hear from Samuel until his death I Sam 25:1
4.         David becomes harpster for Saul  16:14-23
5.         Goliath

a.          Philistines gather for war at Soccoh - on w edge of hill country in the valley of Elah.  Sucoh (Philistines) on s. side of valley - Israelites at Azekah on N side of valley just n of Succoh
b.         Goliath - over 9 ft tall and taunts Israelites for 40 days

1.          Israel dismayed and terrified
2.         Philistines know the secret of iron smelting
3.         Israel bought iron tools from them - so Israel knew the strength of iron
4.         Israel dismayed and terrified of a well equipped and trained Philistine army; Israel armed w/inferior weapons and farm tools of bronze
5.         Goliath defeated and beheaded 1 Sam 17:48

6.         Jonathan becomes 1 in spirit w/David; David kills 100 Philistines in return for Saul's daughter Michal***
7.         Saul pursues David

a.          Jealous of David's prophesy
b.         Feared David because G was w/David but not w/Saul 18:12
c.          Throws his spear at him trying to kill him
d.         David goes to Nob (directly e of Jerusalem maybe a mile) retrieves Goliath's sword***
e.          David goes to Gath in Philistine area 25-30 mi e of Jerusalem and a little S and feigns insanity
f.          Flees to cave at Adullum 10 mi s.w. Of Gath 22:1-5

1.          David's father's household joins him
2.         those distressed, in debt, discontented gathered to him (about 400 - the beginnings of his army)

g.          Takes his parents to Mizpah in Moab (unlocated) 22:3

8.         Doeg, the Edomite, kills the priests of Nob at Gibeah, at Saul's command; Abiathar escapes; Doeg goes to Nob and kills the town
9.         David rescues Keilah (n and w of Hebron) from Philistine attack, they betray David to Saul
10.        Saul pursues David in wilderness of Ziph - s of the Negev
11.        David goes to En-gedi (stern coast of Dead Sea midway between n and s of the sea); cuts a piece of Saul's robe in cave at En-gedi
12.        25:1-42 Nabal and Abigail in Maon (w of En-gedi about 12-15 mi)***
13.        David goes to Ziph in the Negev; steals spear from Saul
14.        David goes to Gath in Philistia because it was increasingly difficult to evade Saul. Saul would not pursue into Philistia

a.          Asks King for a city; king gives him Ziklag - which henceforth always belonged to Judah***
b.         David lives here 1 yr and several months
c.          Sends raiding parties into Shur and Egypt; only attacked peoples such as Geshurites, Girzites, Amalekites - although Philistines thought otherwise)

15.        Philistines assemble at Shunem ready to attack Israel - just n of the valley of Jezreel
16.        Saul responds and sets up camp at Mt. Gilboa to the south

a.          Saul is afraid and attempts to find G's will - but G doesn't answer him by dreams or Urim or prophets
b.         Consults a medium - witch - at Endor (n of Shunem)

17.        Achish, Philistine king, sends David back to Philistia for fear that David would help out Israel in the upcoming battle
18.        30:1 David returns to find that Amalekites have raided Ziklag and the Negev

a.          Families of David's men have been captured
b.         David's men talk of stoning David
c.          David pursues; leaves 200 exhausted men at Brook Besor
d.         David overtakes Amalekites and rescues the captives

19.        Philistines engage Israel at Mt. Gilboah and defeat them***
20.       Saul at age 72 and 3 of his sons are killed, beheaded, displayed at Beth-Shean (at the juncture of valley of Jezreel and Jordan R), buried in Jabesh of Gilead***
21.        David goes to Hebron (in Judah) and is made king over Judah (the southern tribes)  2 Sam 2:4***; reigns as king over Judah 7 yrs and 6 months; circa 1000 b.c. to 963
22.       Abner, Saul's army commander, takes Ish-Bosheth, son of Saul, to Mahanaim (trans-Jordan, just s of Jabbok R) and makes him king over Gilead, Ashur, Jezreel, Ephraim, Benjamin and all Israel

NOTE:  This is "the split" between "Israel" and "Judah"; Israel to the N, Judah to the S.  It is temporary because David’s strength of character brings them together.  It becomes permanent during Solomon’s reign.

23.       The 2 armies collide at Gibeon - just n and w of Jerusalem in the hill country of Judah
24.       Abner, Saul's general kills Asahel - Joab's bro' (Joab = commander of David's army)

a.          Ish-Bosheth’ S army defeated and return to Manahaim
b.         David's army returns to Hebron

25.       Abner betrays Ish-Bosheth (sleeps w/one of Saul’s concubines, an act considered treason by Ish-Bosheth) and convinces Israel, the northern tribes, to follow David
26.       2 Sam 3:22 David accepts Abner and grants him peace
27.       Joab hears of this - goes to Abner in Hebron - kills him to avenge the death of his bro Asahel
28.       Ish-Bosheth loses courage upon Abner's death "and all Israel became alarmed."

a.          2 of his captains hear of this and murder the "cowardly" Ish-Bosheth
b.         takes his head to David; David kills them for murdering Ish-Bosheth

29.       Israel accepts David as King 5:1

a.          David is 37 now, has reigned in Judah 7  yrs
b.         reigns over Israel and Judah together for 33 more years

30.       David marches to and conquers Jerusalem - a Jebusite stronghold

a.          Makes it his headquarters - it has no previous tribal significance***
b.         Conquered it by going thru the water shaft that goes under the walls; shaft took waters from spring of Gihon to a pool inside Jerusalem***
c.          David offers "generalship" to whoever leads the attack on Jerusalem; Joab, son of David's sister Zeruiah does (1 Chron 11:6)***
d.         Jerusalem is 3,000 now; grows to 8,000 in David’s' reign; 15,000 in Solomon reign and 60,000 during Jesus' time***

NOTE:  David makes the Philistines his bodyguards (2 Sam 15:21).  They have no tribal conflict or hidden agenda.  David and these Philistines from Gath know that if they mess up, Israel will slaughter them.

31.        David bring ark of God from Kiriath Jearim (Baalah) 8 miles w of Jerusalem
a.          David's worship, leaping and dancing before the ark  2 Sam 6:16
b.         Michal's pride - disdain (Saul's daughter) and God leaves her barren unto death

32.       Extending the Kingdom

a.          Defeats Philistines (Philistines not mentioned again in scripture after David's time)
b.         8:2 defeats Moabites (made them lie on ground, measured them w/a cord; every 2nd measure were put to death - every 3rd measure allowed to live)
c.          Defeats king of Zobah along the Euphrates R
d.         Defeats ARmameans of Damascus in Syria
e.          Defeats Edom  8:14
f.          Defeats Ammonites
g.          Israel was now a small-scale empire w/subject nations
h.         David leaves Phoenicians alone; they were his scribes (scribe was an important gov't official equal to our Secretary of state).  Israel had no written language until 750 b.c.; after the time of David and Solomon by 250 years.  Earlier records probably written in Egyptian; Job - the earliest book probably written in Sumerian.  Psalms probably in Phoenicia.  Gospels probably in Aramaic.
I.          The Phoenicians - lived along northern coast; city/states

a.          Cities: Tyre, Sidon, and Byblos
b.         Phoenicians were sea traders; navigate by stars across the Med Sea and beyond
c.          they were traders because of little good farmland, there were however several good harbors (harbors were natural along the plains of Phoenicia)
d.         large forest lands; cedar wood; good for shipbuilding and exporting
e.          resource - Murex- rotted snail like animal which produced purple for dyeing
f.          Phoenicia - Greek work for purple
g.          used an alphabet of 22 characters rather than cuneiform which had 600 symbols
h.         Baal - the storm god; scripture refers to several different Baals - most were the Baal of a city/region

33.       David has now firmly established the kingdom and becomes a force to be reckoned with.

34.       Sin w/Bathsheba; murder of Uriah 11:1-27 (while his forces are fighting the Ammonites at Rabbah)

a.          David in his late 40's or early 50's.  He certainly knows better!
b.         Curse on David's family 2 Sam 12:11  "Out of your own household I am going to bring calamity upon you."

1.          Ammon rapes his half-sister Tamar
2.         Absalom takes revenge 2 yrs later and kills Ammon

35.       Absalom rebels - proclaims himself king at Hebron***
36.       David has lost the kingdom and flees to Gilead
37.       David meets Absalom’ S forces in the forest of Ephraim

a.          David defeats Israelites 20,000 casualties
b.         Absalom killed by Joab

38.       2 Sam 20:1 Sheba - a Benjamite (same as Saul) leads a revolt and entices men of Israel away; Judah stays w/David
39.       Sheba defeated at Abel Beth Maacah - city on tributary leading to Lake Huleh which feeds Sea of Chinnereth
40.       David's Mighty Men ***

a.          Josheb-Basshebeth - a Tahkemonite (Hacmonite) slew 800 at one time v8
b.         Eleazar, son of Dodai - fought Philistines until his hand adhered to the sword and left little for others to do but collect spoil  v9-10
c.          Shammah - son of Agee the Haririte - took his stand in field full of lentils and defeated Philistines single-handedly  v 11-12
d.         The 3 who got water for David from Philistine stronghold in Bethlehem (David's hometown)  v 15-17
e.          Abishai (bro of Joab) killed 300 w/his spear  v 18-19
f.          Benaiah kills 2 of Moab's best, killed lion, attacked an armed Egyptian and kills him w/his own spear; becomes commander of Solomon's army after Joab dies

41.        Adonijah sets himself up as king; Joab allies himself to Adonijah***  1 Ki 1:5-53
42.       Solomon set in as king - Solomon had probably co-ruled w/David in David's last few years (a custom of the day).  Middle-east practice - men who were kings but couldn't perform w/spouse couldn't be kings - so an heir is brought in (a symbol of strength and manpower)
43.       David dies at age 70.  He had been able to hold control over the 12 tribes through his personality and administrative skills.***  The sense of individual tribal identity was never dissipated even during times of the judges and up through the United Monarchies of David and Solomon

C.         Solomon  1 Ki 1:31 to 11:43   962 to 922 B.C.

1.          Executes insurrectionists

a.          Adonijah, his  bro.  Adonijah was older than Solomon and on that basis may have had more claim to the throne.  He asked to marry Abishai the Shumommite who was David's last wife.  If allowed to marry her it would have shown a greater claim to the throne.  He was trying to wrestle the kingdom from Solomon.
b.         Joab - for shedding innocent blood.  Abner and Amasa (Joab also killed Absalom - son of David who led revolt against David)  1 Ki 2:34
c.          Shimei - who had called down curses on David when he fled from Absolom  1 Ki 2:48

2.         Demotes Abiather the priest in fulfillment of word to Eli at Shiloh
3.         Solomon's prayer for wisdom at Gibeon (n and w of Jerusalem)

a.          God's answer  3:10-14
b.         The harlot's baby  3:16-28

4.         Solomon's wisdom/insight becomes "as measureless as sand on the seashore"; his fame spreads rapidly; his kingdom is secure and at peace

Keller p 187 Overhead

5.         Build's temple (480 yrs after leaving Egypt) on the site where receives building materials from Hiram - king of Tyre***  1 Ki 5:1 to 6:38

a.          used slave labor - fellow Israelites  1 Ki 5:13; this practice was called corvee***.  These people came from all 12 tribes.  This was a horrible thing to do.
b.         divided the country into 12 districts; their governor's imposed heavy taxes to pay for the building projects
c.          Money to support building projects also came from foreign trade w/Egypt, Asia Minor, Opher on the Red Sea

6.         Visit from Queen of Sheba- southern Arabia - eastern base of the Red Sea
7.         Solomon forsakes God

a.          married hundreds of foreign women for political benefit
b.  they kept their gods and eventually led Solomon astray

8.         God promises to tear away the kingdom from Solomon in Solomon's son's time

a.          God raises up Hadad, the Edomite (Joab had killed all Edomites during David's reign  1 Ki 11:14
b.         God raises up Rezon of Zobah (area n of Damascus in Syria)
d.         God raises up Jeroboam, an Ephramite

1.          Ahijah the prophet takes his own robe and tears it into 12 pieces, tells Jeroboam to take 10 pieces
2.         Solomon knows this and tries to kill Jeroboam who then flees to Egypt until Solomon's death.  Solomon had been able to keep the tribes in line by simply and absolutely crushing all revolts.***  Israel was still not meshed.  They maintained tribal identity.  The kingdom fragmented upon Solomon's death.  He had reigned 40 yrs.  Died in 926 b.c.

D.         Rehoboam (son of Solomon) rules from Shechem (momentarily)

1.          Jeroboam returns from Egypt and he and all Israel asks him to lighten the harsh labor
2.         Rehoboam listened to his youthful counselors instead of the elders and even increased the harshness of the labor***

XI.       The Divided Kingdom  1 Ki 12:1 to 2 Ki 25:30

A.         The people rebel against Rehoboam and reject him as King - except for Benjamin and Judah.  Rehoboam flees to Jerusalem where he secures his partial rule; fortifies the city; Jerusalem is now the capital city of Judah

B.         Jeroboam made king by the rest of Israel; capital at Samaria***

1.          Samaria was a strategic choice
2.         8 miles n of Shechem on 2 important main routes
3.         600 feet above a "fat valley"
4.         Jeroboam fears Israel will eventually return to Rehoboam and to Jerusalem to worship and offer sacrifices
5.         1 Ki 12:25  Sets up golden calves in Dan (n of Sea of Galilee) and in Bethel - w of Jericho

a.          sets in his own priests
b.         sets up his own special feast on the same special feast days of Benjamin and Israel

6.         1 Ki 13:2  A man of G prophesies against the alter "Josiah will burn the bones of your high priests on this alter" (Fulfilled 2 Chron 34:5)
7.         Other evil kings of Israel likened to him.  He's the measuring rod of evil
8.         This northern kingdom lasts about 250 yrs and then is no more
9.         During this time the prophets Elijah and Elisha prophesy***

C.         Shishak, king of Egypt, attacks Jerusalem w/12oo chariots, 60,000 horsemen and innumerable troops of Libyan, Sukkites and Cushites  Cerca 926 B.C.

1.          Shishak's account of the attack found at Karnak (the temple of Amon)
2.         He ravages lands from Egypt as far N as Jerusalem where he raids the temple and takes the gold shields (Rehoboam bought him off w/these).
3.         His conquest is stopped when he is forced to return to Egypt to quell internal disputes

D.         A few minor kings reign in Israel and Judah

E.         Omri - king of Israel - significant because builds the ancient city of Samaria (cerca 882 b.c.); Samaria becomes capital city of Israel

1.          Restored a measure of stability to Israel
2.         Sought friendly relations w/Phoenicians
3.         Arranged marriage of his son, Ahab, to Jezebel,
daughter of king of Tyre

-           marriage was good from political point
-           proved to be disastrous to Israel
-           Omri built a shrine to Baal, God of Tyre,
for Jezebel (Solomon did same thing)

4.         Omri had earlier arranged the marriage of other
daughter, Athaliah, to jehoram, son of Jehoshaphat
Of Judah. Thus, Jezebel’s influence was to reach
into the southern kingdom as well
5.         Assyrian records describe N. Kingdom as “house of
Omri”; Omri was a wise administrator and wise
6.         Constantly battling w/Syrian kings at Damascus
7.         Omri built an enclosing wall around the city

F.         Ahab, son of Omri, next king of Israel - reigns 22 years

1.          did more to provoke G to anger than any other king of Israel
2.         built a wall around the entire hilltop of Samaria
3.         more successful in war and affairs of state rather
than religious affairs
4.         captured Ben-hadad of Damascus of Syria, made
treaty with him
5.         joined w/Jehoshaphat of Judah in attempt to take
Ramoth-gilead from Arameans
6.         Micaiah prophesied the campaign would end in
disaster when all other court prophets prophesied
7.         killed in battle at Ramoth in Gilead by King of Aram (Syria); buried in Samaria, dogs licked his blood
4.         wife Jezebel is the epitome of evil; killed at Jezreel (hill country of Judah 25 mi west of Salt Sea midway 'tween n and s shores); dogs eat her up

a.          Jezebel is the daughter of the King of Sidon
b.         She reintroduces the fertility cult of Baal and brings about a religious crisis

XII.      THE ASSYRIAN EMPIRE - most barbaric, cruel empire on face of the earth

A.         Geographic control - Caspian Sea (NE) to Persian Gulf (SE) to Palestine, Egypt, Ethiopia (SW) to middle of Asia Minor (NW); northern border runs along the top of the Fertile Crescent.  See Holman p. 113

B.         A world power roughly from 1300 b.c. to 600 b.c.

1.          began about 120 years after Israel settled in Canaan

2.         Took its name from Asshur on the upper Tigris River on the trade routes of the Fertile Crescent

3.         was frequently invaded from the north and the south; constant warfare produced fierce fighters; first to use calvary in battle instead of just using horses to pull chariots

C.         Assyrian Empire divided into 3 time periods

1.          Early Conquests (prior to Ahab's time) - 1100 B.C.; ruled by Tiglath-PilesarI; from Central Asia Minor to Babylon to Sidon

2.         Middle Period - time period of Elijah and Elisha (850); possibly Jonah

a.          883-859 ruled by Ashurnasippal II
b.         858-824 ruled by ShalmanesarIII who was attempting to bring all of western Asia into his empire

1.          invades Syria in 853; defeated at ZarQar on the Orontes R by a small army made up of a coalition of 12 kings which included Ahab of Israel (Ahab had settled his differences with Ben_Hadad and the 2 joined forced w/10 others to defeat Assyrian advance
2.         defeated Damascus in 841; rec'd tribute from Tyre and Sidon and from Jehu of Israel.

3.         Late Period 744-600.  Includes ministries of Isaiah (744-698), Michah (737-710), Nahum (686-612), Zephaniah (640-621), Jeremiah (626-584), and Habakkuk (608-598).  See p. 113 Holman for geographic reign again.  Constantly battling against Egypt for dominance.  Palestine was the battleground for struggles between the two powers.

a.          Tiglath-Pilesar III (also known as Pul in the Bible); 744-727

-           great administrator and soldier
-           assisted Ahaz, King of Judah, by defeating Pekah of Israel; conquered all Israel except Samaria and puts Hoshea on the throne (Israel's last king).  Read 2 2 Ki 15:19,29-30, 2 Ki 16:7-10).  conquered Damascus in Syria

b.         Shalmanesar V; 727-722

-           Israel (northern 10 tribes) revolt during his reign
-           Shal V invades Israel and lays seige to Samaria for 3 years; Samaria falls in 722 and the northern kingdom is no more
-           Israel was exiled and assimilated into foreign lands thus losing their identity
-           Next invaded Judah, imprisoned Hoshea, captured Samaria***
-           imported people from Babylon, Cuthia, Avon, Hamath, and Shepharvaim 2 Kings 17:24
-           Read 2 Kings 17:1-6

c.          Sargon II  721-705; one of most famous of Assyrian Kings

-           took credit for Shal V conquering Judah
-           deported 27,290 prisoners from Israel to Assyria (thus entering the time of the Babylonian captivity)
-           imported aliens from Babylon, Churhia, and other foreign cities*** (2 Ki 17:24)
-           left behind the most poor who then intermarried with those who were transported into the land thus producing a "mongrel race of Samaritans.  the remnant who later returned would have nothing to do s/this mixed breed, an impure race

d.         Sennacherib (Sargon's son) 704-681

-           a great builder, largely rebuilt his own capital city of Ninevah
-           conquered Sidon, invaded Judah and besieged Jerusalem
-           Hezekiah sends tribute to Sennacherib to forestall captivity
-           spends much of his time quelling internal revolts
-           withdraws from Jerusalem after Angel of the Lord slays 180,000 of his men

-           Read 2 Kings 19:35
-           an historical account of Sennacherib's attack states that "one night a multitude of fieldmice swarmed over the Assyrian camp and devoured their quivers and their bows and the handles of their shields, likewise, insomuch that they fled the next day unarmed and many fell."  Since mice are associated with the plague, it is possible that this is a Biblicical account of the destruction of the Assyrian army by the Angel of the Lord.
-           killed by his owns sons at Ninevah  2 Kings 19:37

e.          Esaarhaddon - Senn's son, pursues murderous brothers to upper Tigris but they escape

-           fights a lot with Egypt

f.          Ashurbanipal  668-630

-           Assyria reaches peak of cultural development
-           last of the great Assyrian kings
-           conquers Elam -east of Mesopotamia thus extending the empire to its greatest size
-           great scholar as well as a warrior
-           his library discovered and excavated in 1853; 20,000 tablets and scrolls which were the greatest collection of Assyrian and Babylonian history, science and religion
-           here were found stories of creation and the flood which were current among the Sumerians and their Assyrian and Babylonian successors
-           built roads to transport armies quickly; organized a mail service reaching from one end of empire to the other
-           accomplishes greatest triumph of Assyrian history - he marched on and conquered the Egyptian capital of Thebes in 663 b.c. (called No-amon in the Bible)
-           constantly battling Medes (from Media) who were a thorn in his side growing ever stronger; also battled Scythians from the north (around the Caspian Sea)

4.         Babylon and Egypt break out from under Assyrian rules in 626 b.c. after Ash. dies

-           the Assyrians were not strong enough to handle Babylon and Egypt and the invading Scythians

5.         Ninevah falls to Medes and Babylons and a coalition of other nations in 614 b.c.;  Assyrian empire reduced to chaos and retreated to Haran and tried to set up government

-           Nabopolassar, the Babylonian, conquers Haran and gives the deathblow to Assyrian empire
-           Nabopolassar is now old and gives his power to Nebuchadnezar
-           Ninevah was a fortified city surrounded by many smaller garrison cities and walls 100 miles long surrounded all.  all that was needed to survive was inside these walls.  Ninevah very evil - bar and brothel on every corner

D.         The Kingdom of Judah  722 to 586 b.c.
1.          Judah, under Hezekiah, rebels against Assyrian domination (as Assyria forced to focus on the eastern front)

a.          Hez. institutes religions reform (2nd Chron 29); Passover is again celebrated from Dan to Beersheba  (2nd Chron 30)
b.         Hez. strengthens Jerusalems' defenses

2.         Judah's fortified cities are soon conquered by Sennacherib 2nd Chron 32; Isaiah prophesies against Judah of an attack from the North in Isaiah 3

3.         Long reign of Manasseh followed by 2 yr reign of his son Amon  2 King 21  2 Chron 33

4.         Josiah - king of Judah in 639  @ Chron 34 and 2 Ki 22

a.          is king during last years of Ashurbanipal as Ash.'s focus is on the Medes; Zephaniah is prophet (great grandson of Hezekiah); denounced sins of his generation and insisted Yahweh’s wrath was imminent

b.         book of law found in temple

c.          killed in 609 at Megiddo by Pharaoh Neco as Egypt was marching north to Haran to help at the last stand of Assyria against the encroaching Babylonians.

d.         Josiah tried to stop Egypt but was unsuccessful.  He did, however, delay Neco long enough to allow Naboppolassar to strike the death blow to the Assyrian Empire.

5.         Johohas, Josiah's son, becomes king - only for 3 months, captured by Neco, pharaoh of Egypt.

6.         Jehoiakim, Jehohaz's brother, made king  2 Chron 23:31

7.         This is the time of the prophet Jeremiah.

8.         Jehoiachin succeeds his father Johoiakim; surrenders to Babylon w/I 3 months; Ezekiel taken captive.

9.         Nebuchadneezar, who has succeeded Nabopolassar, is now in power and marches against Jerusalem.

10.        Conquers Jerusalem in 587 and takes Judah into exile  2 Ki 25 and 2 Chron 36:15.

11.        Zedekiah is made King.

12.        This is the time of the prophet Ezekiel; he prophesies against Jerusalem;  in 589 Babylonians invade Judah; capture Jerusalem in 586; Judah again taken into exile; Jeremiah released from captivity;  this is the time of the 70 yr captivity.  This period began what is known as the Diaspora - dispersion of Jews throughout the

XIII.The Neo-Babylonian Empire (Chaldean)

A.         See page 121 of Holman for geographic layout; roughly the same area as the Assyrian Empire.

B.         A Semitic people who first appeared in southern Mesopotamia cerca 1100 B.C.

C.         Were intimately involved in the fate of Judah and the object of many prophetic oracle from Jeremiah, Ezekiel and Isaiah.

D.         Struggled with Assyrians for control of Babylonia.

E.         Shalmanessar V, Assyrian Emperor, had just conquered Samaria where Merodach-baladan, king of Babylon, sends envoy to Jerusalem to congratulate king Hezekiah on his recovery from illness and to urge him to ally himself with Chaldeans against Assyria  2 Ki 20:12

a.          Hez shows his temple's treasures to visiting envoys (who will one day conquer Jerusalem)

F.         King of Babylon's revolt crushed by Assyrians but strengthen themselves and wait for an opportune time.

G.         626  Nabopolassar, a Chaldean prince, revolts against Assyria and establishes the Neo-Babylonian or Chaldean Empire.

1.          Conquers Ninevah, Assyrian capital, in 612

2.         lays claim to Assyrian empire

H.         Assyria retreats to Haran; falls to Babylonians, Medes and Scythians in 610.

I.          Egypt tries to gain dominance in Palestine and Syria

1.          Egypt and Babylon clash at Carchemish on upper Tigris river in 605

2.         Egypt defeated by Nebuchadrezzar, son of Nabopolassar

J.         Nebuchannezzar 604 - 561 conquers Palestine in 604

1.          Judah waivers in pro-Egyptian or pro-Babylonian position

2.         Takes a pro-Egypt position

3.         Neb. besieges Jerusalem in 598; conquers it in 597; appoints Zedekiah as king; exiles only the moneyed and titled classes and those w/specialized trades; the best men of Judah were enslaved and taken to Babylon to work on various projects.  Ezekiel is one of the captives.  In captivity he works on the canal on the river chebor.  This is where he sees his visions and writes the book of Ezekiel.***

K.         Judah and Jerusalem revolt again and summon help from Egypt (which does no good); Jeremiah warns them to align selves w/Babylon and not with Egypt but they do not listed; and again is besieged in 588; falls again in 586 to Nebuchanrezzar ***.

1.          Zedikiah tries to escape at night and is captured
2.         taken to Nebuchadnezzar's camp at Riblah in Syria

3.         forced to watch as his sons were executed

4.         eyes were put out

5.         taken in captivity to Babylon; dies there.  2 Ki 25:6, Jer. 52:9-11

6.         Middle class, working class and poor deported

7.         Time of Shadrach, Meshak, Abednego and Daniel - fiery furnace, writing on the wall and the lion's den***

8.         Neb's captain of the bodyguard, Nebuzardon, utterly destroys Jerusalem, the Temple, breaks down the walls leaving only the houses of the very poor

9.         Jeremiah, an old man, witnesses the destruction*** and writes Lamentations

L.          Gedaliah, appointed to govern the land by Neb.

1.          moves headquarters to Mizpah because Jerusalem was in ruins

2.         G's father was a noble who once saved Jeremiah's life  (Jer 26:24)

3.         sought to lead the people back to a normal lifestyle

4.         assassinated by group of extremists, lead by Ishmael (member of the royal house of Judah), because he was looked upon as a Babylonian collaborator

5.         this group flees to Egypt and take Jeremiah with them (Jeremiah dies in Egypt)

M.        Enbuchadnezzar succeeded by Evil-Merodach  2 Ki 25:27-30, then by Neriglissar, by Labashi-Marduk; by nabonidus  555-539

N.         Nabonidas carries on warfare in Syria and Lebanon

O.         Babylon falls to Cyrus, King of Medes and Persians in 539***

1.          Babylon - greatest city the world has seen to that point in time; walls 45-75 feet high and 150 feet thick

2.         impregnable until Medes dammed up the Euphrates R which flowed thru the city and went in on the dry riverbed

3.         this is also the time when the king sees the handwriting on the wall and Daniel interprets it  Daniel chapter 5

XIV.     The Persian Empire - cerca 550 b.c to 350 b.c.

Note:Came from Central Asia; made their home on high mountain-walled plateau between Caspian sea and the Persian Gulf.  Called themselves Irani (Ayrians) and homeland was Irania (now Iran); mistakenly names Persians by Greek geographers who mistakenly named them after the province of Parsa where the early kings had their capital.

A.         Cyrus - responsible for bringing the vast Persian empire into being.  P 122 of Holman; 550 - conquered the Medes; seized Babylon in 539 B.C. w/o a fight; allowed exiles to return in 538 B.C. and rebuild the temple this is the first return; time of Ezra 1-6

1.          most captives elect to stay; by now they are well assimilated into the land.  About 42,000 return.
2.         Rebuilding of temple encouraged by Haggai and Zechariah in 528 and no longer houses the ark of God; it had been destroyed; couldn't rebuild it 'cause didn't know what it looked like.
3.         Nehemiah comes from Susa to rebuild walls of Jerusalem in 444; opposed by Sanballat and Tobiah; they try to lure out Nehemiah but are unsuccessful; rebuilds the walls in 54 days - a momentous feat.
4.         Nehemiah rebuilds administration, discipline and training.
5.         This is the "post exilic" period of 538 to 330 B.C.; during this time are Haggai, Zechariah, Malichai, Esther, Nehemiah and Ezra

NOTE:  The years of Babylonian captivity until the decree of Cyrus (60-70 yrs) saw:

a.          teachers appointed to take the place of temple priests and become religious leaders of the people
b.         the study of the law became a substitute for animal sacrifices
c.          ethical observances took the place of ritual

B.         Cyrus' son Cambyses (529-522) marches on and defeats Egyptians; founded a Jewish colony at Elephantine on the Nile R.; perfects system of gov’t established by Cyrus

C.         Darius U (522 - 486) builds Persepolis as his capital; subdues western India

1.          Subdues Thrace and Macedonia in 513
2.         490  lands at Marathon, Greece but defeated by Athenians ***. He was trying to punish Athens for Athen sending aid to rebels in his kingdom.
3.         Building operations which had been suspended are now resumed in 520 b.c. and the temple is completed in 516
4.         Dies 486 B.C.

D.         Xerxes, son of Darius, was a weak and tyrannical king - husband of Esther (485-464) invades Greece w/huge army; defeats Sparta and Athens but meets severe defeat in naval battle at Salamis off the coast near Athens ***.  This is the first sign of decay of Persian Empire.  The next 125 years are filled w/conspiracies, assassinations, and revolts.

E.         Persia never again invades Greece.  This initiates a shift in the focus of world history from the Middle East to Europe.  If this hadn't happened, we'd probably be Persians.

F.         Ezra 4  Artaxerxes I  464-423 (the Second Return was in 458 listed in Ezra 7-10)- possibly the son of Esther and Xerxes (if not a son then definitely influenced by them); represses revolts in Bactria and Egypt

G.         The Decline

1.          423-409  Darius II loses Egypt
2.         404-358  Artaxerxes II - Ezra goes to Jerusalem
3.         358-337  Artaxerxes III allies w/Athens against Philip of Macedon
4.         335-330 Darius III and an army of 200,000 to 250,000 defeated by Alexander the Great and an all Greek army of 45,000 to 50,000; Alexander has now captured the western half of the Persian Empire

XV.       Greek Rule  -  see page 117 of Holman

A.         General info

1.          Mts., valley, natural harbors, 1,000's of islands
2.         a peninsula that juts into Med. Sea
3.         southern portion of peninsula is called the Peloponnesus
4.         w side of Greece is Adriatic sea; e.side is Aegean Sea
5.         most Grecians cities are w/I 40 miles of the coast
6.         shipbuilding, fishing, trading were major occupations

B.         Pre-Classical Age Greece (before 500 b.c.)

1.          Athens

a.          conquered by tribe from the n.  @ 1150 b.c.
b.         Dark Age begins- little is known about Greece in this time

1.          ruled by king - assisted by council of nobles; assembly of citizens;  this is a MONARCHY - "rule by one"
2.         this rule changed at end of Dark Age; ruled by OLIGARCHY - "rule by few"

c.          in centuries to follow, lower classes became discontent w/Oligarchy; rebelled;; replaced OLIGARCHY w/tyrants. Tyrant = leader who rises to power w/support of discontented people; each voice = one vote; entered classical age

2.         Sparta

a.          located on Peloponnesus; also invaded by northern tribe
b.         ruled by Monarchy in Dark Age
c.          evolved into Oligarchy; did not advance further politically; the main primary goal of Sparta was to have a strong citizen army
d.         Conquered surrounding weaker people; made them slaves = HELOTS - who served the people in their daily lives

C.         The Classical Age

1.          growth of Greek city states brought conflict w/Persian empire; fought w/Persians for over 10 yrs
2.         Major battle w/Persian King, Xerxes, battle of Salamis Bay; destroyed 200/350 ships
3.         Athenian Democracy - 500 b.c.  (The Third Return under Nehemiah was 444 B.C.)

a.          pure democracy - each male = one vote; democracy needs small #'s and educated people
b.         not only had right to rule but responsibility to rule as well
c.          the major democratic body was the Assembly - all citizens of males over 18 born of 2 Athenian parents; met 40 times a yr and voted on various issues
d.         Pericles - leader of Athens at height of Classical Age; gave over 30 yrs to wise, thoughtful leadership

4.         The Marketplace of Athens

a.          Agora - center of Athens, people gathered to buy and sell; discussed politics and philosophy and the latest gossip
b.         Schools, gov't buildings, courts, private businesses were in the Agora (where Paul went)
c.          farmers didn't raise enough food, so had to import
d.         exported olive oil, win, poultry, artistic metalwork, silver

5.         Religion in Classical Greece

a.          Acropolis, on hill overlooking Athens was the center of religious life
b.         this acropolis was the original Athens
c.          After Persian wars - Athens expanded and built up surrounding area
d.         Parthenon - major temple built to honor Athena
e.          Each city/state in Greece had their own god - a patron god
f.          no strong priest class; concentrated on the ability of man

6.         The Age of Knowledge

a.          many philosophers lived in Athens
b.         they searched for truth
c.          Socrates - "a person will act right if he thinks right"
d.         Plato - nothing is perfect; perfection only exists in spiritual realm
e.          Aristotle - science is most important study; man's reasonings control his nature
f.          Archimedes - perfect the lever, pulleys, and machines of the day
g.          Pythagoras - put forth the geometric theorem of triangles
h.         Euclid - geometry
I.          Eratosthenes - calculated circumference of the earth - only 130 miles off; also longitude and latitude
j.          Aristarchus - astronomer - sun is center of solar system not the earth - this was strange thinking at the time
k.          learned an alphabet of 24 letters - much different than the Egyptian or Sumerian alphabet;  they borrowed their alphabet from the Phoenicians

7.         Spread of Greek culture

a.          Peloponnesian War  431-404 b.c.  Athens grew in power, wealth, people, land; Spartans saw this as a threat; war broke out, Sparta won but was not able to maintain gov't because it was so different
b.         Phillip II 359-336 b.c.  built a strong army; conquered several of the warring city/states; the letter to the Philippians is to a city named after Philip
C.         Alexander the Great -  336 - 323 son of Phillip; taught by Aristotle, military genius;

1.          moved east conquering the Persians and the known world;
2.         he and his successors fostered the spread of Greek culture known as Hellenism - an ancient Greek culture which birthed the Iliad and the Odessy***; also responsible for spreading the Greek language; dies at 32
3.         Alexander's 3 generals split up the empire

a.          Ptolemy rules Egypt, Cyrene, Cyprus and Palestine; Cleopatra was the last Ptolemy - she died in 30 b.c.; under Ptolemy Philadelphas (285-246 b.c.) the Jewish scriptures were translated into Greek and are known as the Septuagint
b.         Antiqonus rules Asia Minor, Thrace, Macedonia and Greece
c.          Seleucus rules Babylonia

4.         A period of Ptolemaic-Seluecid wars followed from 305 to 245 b.c.  The coastal plain of Sharon was the corridor along which the armies of these 2 power marched and warred from 305 to 170.  Control of Palestine went back and forth.
5.         Ptolemaic kings took on the title of Pharaoh***
6.         Seluecid kings founded a city named Antioch*** on the Orontes River.  These kings took on the title of Antiochus.

D.         The Ptolemies of Egypt controlled Palestine and Phoenicia until the reign of Antiochus III

E.         The attempt of Antiochus IV to force Hellenism on the Jews brings about the Maccabean revolt in 167 b.c.  The Maccabees were a family of Hebrews who lead the revolt against the Seleucides***

1.          Ant. IV wreaks vengeance on Jerusalem; desecrates the temple
2.         Offers swine on the alter of the L; builds heathen alters throughout Judah
3.         forced Mattathias to sacrifice pig to Zeus; Mat. refuses and flees w/his sons
4.         His son, Judah Maccabeus, leads a rebellion for about 7 yrs but is eventually defeated
5.         Bro Jonathan assumes leadership - killed in 143
6.         Bro Simon assumes leadership; the high priesthood at Jerusalem was established in his family
7.         after Simon was killed, his son John Hyrcanus rules as High Priest and brings Jewish state to its height of power under the Maccabees; John Hyrcanus was founder of this Hasmonean dynasty
8.         John Hyrcannus' son Aristobulus, was the 1st Maccabean ruler to assume kingship in 104 b.c.  (Aristobulus imprisoned his mother and brothers to assume control)
9.         Aristobulus dies 1 yr later and his widow, Salome Alexandra, married the next surviving bro - Alexander Jannaeus who was king from 103 to 76 b.c.
10.        Aristobulus II, son of Salome Alexandra, becomes king after Salome' death; he removes his bro Hyrcannus II from the priesthood
11.        This political chaos in Palestine attracts the attention of Rome
12.        Pompey sends Lt. Scarus to investigate and to settle the political fracas
13.        Scaurus decides for Aristobulus - who suddenly revolts
14.        Rome attacks Jerusalem, Hyrcannus surrenders the city and Aristobulus is taken captive; he and his family taken away to Rome
15.        On way to Rome - Alexander - Aristobulus' son - escapes and attempts revolt against Hyrcannus and loses

NOTE: The Zealots of the N.T. claim to be descendants of the Macabeas.

16.        Civil war between Pompey and Caesar in 49 b.c.
17.        Hyrcannuus aids Caesar; Caesar rewards him by appointing him head of Jewish nation
18.        Hyrcannus' minister is Antipater
19.        Antipater - made ruler of Galilee

XVI.     Roman Rule - the City, the Nation, the Empire

A.         The City - Legend has it that the city was built by Romulus and Remus - 2 brothers who fought and argued over where it was to be established.

1.          founded around 753 b.c. by a tribe called "Latins" who were farmers
2.         after 100 yrs, conquered by Etruscans - we know very little about them; can't translate their language
3.         Latins rebelled and overthrew Etruscans; re-established themselves and became known as Romans

B.         The Republic

1.          Romans disliked the Etruscan monarchy and established a republic = "the people's thing"; gov't is the responsibility of the people
2.         a representative gov't; they chose people to represent them and make the laws
3.         not all could vote - only the patricians could vote - the Roman noble class
4.         Plebeians (workers, farmers, merchants, foreigners) didn't have the right to vote
5.         The Republic was ruled by 2 bodies

a.          Senate - ruling body of the patricians whose leaders were called Consuls
b.         Assembly - ruling body of the plebeians; leaders were called Tribunes

6.         Roman law based on: "written" law and the fact that no one is above the law - although this latter had to be passed only after the insistence of the Plebeians; Plebeians weren't really equal in gov't until 287 bc.
7.         Republic had a strong military

a.          soldiers were called legionaries - well trained, well disciplined, well armed, well lead
b.         legion - several thousand soldiers divided into smaller groups; each soldier - short sleeved tunic, leather coat of armor, cloak and heavy leather sandals, leather and bronze helmet, wooden shield, short sword and 6' javelin

8.         In the early yrs of the republic the armies spread out and conquered much land - the Italian Peninsula first - then a series of Punic (Punic=roman word for cartage) wars w/Cartage

NOTE: Cartage was the chief maritime power of western Med Sea.  They were originally a colony of Phoenicia but were "forced" into independence with the overthrow of the mother country by Alexander.  Cartage was a wealthy and powerful nation.  They were oriental; an oligarchy maintained by mercenary army and governed by autocratic rule.  Rome and Cartage were alien to one another in racial origin and in political theory.  There was not enough room in the Med. area for both of them.

a.          Captured Sicily and Sardonia from Cartage, Africa = 1st Punic war - 264-241
b.         Hannibal of Cartage almost defeated Rome - Rome choked off his supplies and defeated him = 2nd Punic war  218-201
c.          Rome defeated Cartage by sneak attack; now controls northern Africa 149-146
d.         conquered Greece and the Macedonian army and Alexander's 3 successors  197
e.          defeated Seleucids and added all the Seleucids land (Antioch became main administrative city of the eastern empire; 133-121 bc.

1.          Seleucids were assimilated into the Roman Empire
2.         Jews are allowed to establish their own nation; they establish themselves as "Judea" (the Greek pronunciation of Judah).  The nation of Judea is ruled by a High Priest for 100 years; during this time one family primarily rules; this family takes on the title of Hasmonean
3.         the Hasmonean's gave birth to a group called Pharisee's (a political party)
4.         Pharisee's are moral and fair; they are close to the truth but not quite there
5.         There were about 6,000 pharisees of a Jerusalem population of one and  to 2 million citizens

a.          they were separatists (the Puritans of Judaism) who w/drew from all evil associations
b.         required complete obedience to every jot and tittle of the oral/written law
c.          believed in angels, spirits, immortality, resurrection
d.         practices ritual prayer and fasting; tithed meticulously; kept the Sabbath strictly not even making allowance for healing

6.         Other religious/political groups in Judea

a.          Sadducees - not as numerous as Pharisees - possessed political power and were the governing group in Judaistic civil life under the Herods - they denied spirits, angels, personal immortality - they were political opportunists and allied themselves w/whatever group was in power
b.         Essenes - an ascetic bro'hood entered only by those willing to submit to regulations and undergo initiations - abstained from marriage - believed in communal property - none rich or poor - hard workers who were clean and not given to anger or oaths - digression from beliefs and practices was immediate expulsion - when die the good go to sunshine and cool breezes; bad go to dark, stormy place of continual torment
c.          Zealots - a group of fanatical nationalists who advocated violence as a means of liberation from Rome; their creed = God is the only Law and there is no tribute to be paid to a roman governor
f.          Med Sea had now become a "roman lake"; Rome controlled Spain, N. Africa, Macedonia, Corinth, Achaia, Pergamum, Asia Minor, Syria and Gaul
g.          conquered Syria and Judea in 64 b.c.

9.         In campaigns against Cartage and Greece - total destroyed them as an example

a.          were more lenient w/other lands and peoples
b.         allowed conquered territories to govern themselves
c.          gave coveted "roman citizenship" to some
d.         rarely gave foreigners the right to vote
e.          built a large road system to connect conquered lands

10.        Troubles at home

a.          legionaries returned home to find their own farmlands overgrown or taken by the rich; the poor moved into the city
b.         a lot of Roman citizens became fat and lazy - living off wealth of others; governed for their own selfish good and not for the good of the people
c.          poor Romans couldn't find work because the rich had brought slaves to do it all
d.         several slave revolts
e.          Plebeians gave up right to govern in return for safety and security
f.          violence and corruption resulted in various individuals vying for power
g.          civil war breaks out; the Republic collapsed

C.         The Empire

1.          Began w/death of Julius Caesar and the rise of Octavion "the imperator" in 30 b.c.
2.         Octavian brought in the Pax Romana - a period of peace from 30 b.c. to 180 a.d. during which time Rome reached her height in culture

a.          Octavian (Caesar Augustus) tried to resolve honesty, diligence, respect and morality
b.         wise, fair ruler; encouraged representatives be elected on basis of above
c.          kept complete control of army which kept rivals from challenging his power
d.         organized conquered territories into provinces - gave some self rule
e.          Octavian's rule opened up great trade markets; resulted in a strong industry and gave birth to a single system of coinage

3.         Religion

a.          Polytheistic
b.         emperors were "like the gods" - demanded worship
c.          Romans borrowed a lot from the practices of its conquered people
d.         2 well known philosophies accepted as religions

1.          Epicureanism (Epicurus) which believed: a man is happy only when free from pain; there is no god or life after death; only the present matters; "eat, drink and be merry" and have no pain.
2.         Stoicism - says only duty matters; be brave in battle; follow orders

XVII.The Times of the Gospels

A.         Chief languages of the Roman World

1.          Latin - language of law and literature; spoken in N. Africa, Spain, Britain, Italy
2.         Greek - cultural language familiar to all educated; spoken from Rome eastward; probably used by Jesus and disciples when dealt w/Gentiles
3.         Aramic - predominate tongue of Near East - used by Paul in his defense in Jerusalem; Jesus spoke Aramic in Jn 1:42, Mk 7:34, Mt 27:46
4.         Hebrew - a dead language since Ezra; used by some rabbis for theological thought; not understood by rank and file of the people
NOTE:  The wide use of 3 languages is evidenced by the inscription on the cross written in 3 languages - Aramaic, Latin and Greek

B.         Palestine Under the Herods

1.          Herod the Great's rise to power

a.          Roman general Pompey - under kingship of Julius Caesar was later killed by Brutus and the Roman Senate*** - enters Jerusalem as conqueror in 63 b.c. ending Hasmonean dynasty***
b.         Antipater (an Idumean) for his services to the Romans was made ruler of Galilee*** (Idumeu is Greek for Edom - the Edomites who had moved n in post-exilic period when Nabatean (an Arabian people and rivals of the Herods) occupied Edom***

1.          Antipater's sons were Herod, Phasail
2.         When Antipater dies, son Herod gains power by capturing Jerusalem in 37 b.c.

a.          confirmed as king of jews in 30 bc.
p84 of Atlas                             b.         ruled over Judea, Samaria, Galilee and the district east of Jordan called Perea )Perea= Gk for "beyond"
c.          Jesus born in Bethlehem in 4 bc before Herod (the Great) dies

c.          Herod the Great is a jew by religion but went as far as a jew could go in aligning self w/the power of Rome and the ways of a pagan world:

1.          he was responsible for large public works in Greco-Roman style; built harbor at Caesarea (n. of Joppa) - public buildings at Jerusalem and Samaria
2.         upon his death in 4 bc the kingdom was divided between 3 of his sons

a.          Herod Archelaus - oldest son, rec'd Judea, Samaria, Idumea; he reigned in Jerusalem until he was deposed in 6 a.d and then Judea was placed under Pontius Pilate who was directly responsible to Caesar; during this time Joseph returned to Nazareth, east of Mt. Carmel, from Egypt w/the infant Jesus
b.         Herod Philip - was the son of Herod and Cleopatra of Jerusalem; he rec'd Iturea and Trachonites; his capital was Tiberias, a major city on the west coast of Sea of Gallilee
c.          Herod Antipas - youngest son - rec'd Galilee and Perea; his capital was Caesarea, north of Lake Huleh, Philippi; he is referred to simple as "Herod" in the bible.  Jesus was one of his subjects and compared him to a fox in Luke 13:32

C.         John the Baptist

1.          son of Zechariah, the priest, and Elizabeth
2.         born/raised Ain Karim  5 mi w of Jerusalem
3.         much of his ministry occurs on e banks of Jordan R along Perea
4.         baptized Jesus along Halloh Ford - e of Jericho
5.         imprisoned at Machaerus - a fortified city ruled by Herod the Great; one of 3 Jewish fortresses to hold out after the fall of Jerusalem in 70 a.d.; the other 2 were Herodium and Masada

D.         Jesus

1.          born in Bethlehem; Octavian rules in Rome (Caesar Augustus) reigned 31 bc to 14 ad
2.         Brought up and lived in Nazareth until about age 30; Nazareth 20 to 25 miles east of Mt. Carmel

a.          1300 ft above sea level (sea of Galilee to the w 695 feet below sea level)
b.         50 mi s of Mt. Hermon
c.          25" rainfall yearly - many citrus and olive groves

3.         Much of Jesus' ministry centered in Capernaum (20 m n and e of Nazareth, northern tip of Sea of Galilee) in Galilee

a.          Paralytic lowered thru roof at Capernaum
b.         Beatitudes also preached in hills above Capernaum

4.         Jesus also journeyed to region of Tyre and Sidon and across the Sea of Galilee to cities of the Decapolis
5.         Other areas of Jesus' ministry

a.          Bethsaida - 3 mi east of Capernaum on nw coast of sea of Galilee
b.         Cana - home of Simon and Nathaniel; 12 miles west and a little south of Capernaum
c.          Magdala on w coast of Sea of Galilee
d.         Caesarea, Philippi - Simon's confirmation of Jesus as son of God; Jesus' foretelling his death
e.          Mt. Tabor (also known as Itabyriam)- 12 to 15 mi w of southern tip of Sea of Galilee; this is the mount of transfiguration

6.         Gospel of John adds info of Jesus' visits to Jerusalem and Judea
a.          baptized by John
b.         called his 1st disciples
c.          talked w/Nicodemus
d.         taught in the temple
e.          John reports Jesus was at Jerusalem at least 5 times
f.          passed thru the area of Samaria - woman at the well
7.         Last 4 months of Jesus' life - much clearer

a.          Bethany - went to a feast
b.         went to Jerusalem to attend feast of Dedication - people tried to stone him
c.          leaves and goes to the place where John baptized people
8.         Passion Week

a.          Friday - arrives in Bethany 6 days before Passover to spend time w/Mary, Martha, Lazarus
b.         Saturday - not mentioned in gospels; Jesus' probably spent time w/friends in Bethany
c.          Sunday (Palm) - triumphal entry into Jerusalem by way of Mt. of Olives
d.         Monday - does to temple; overturned tables in court of Gentiles
e.          Tuesday - part of day in temple answering questions; asked about authority of John the Baptist; taught in parables; warned people against Pharisees; predicted destruction of Herod's temple; told disciples of future events, predicts his death

Emperor                                               f.          Wednesday - day of rest in Bethany
Tiberius                                               g.          Thursday - the Last Supper, go to Garden of Gethsemane (Mt. of Olives)
rules in Rome                            h.         Friday - crucifixion outside walls of Jerusalem to the northwest on Golgotha (the place of the skull)
I.          In the tomb before 6:00 pm Friday (when the Sabbath begins)

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